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List of legislations on environment and ecology in India

Sep 28, 2017 14:20 IST

    The Environment is the greatest gift of God to man. Its abiotic components like air, water, light, etc., and its biotic living components like plants, animals, human beings, etc. are responsible for the survival and continuance of life on this planet. Here, we are giving the list of legislations on environment and ecology in India that addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment for general awareness.

    environmental law In India

    List of legislations on environment and ecology in India

    Environmental laws

    Year  of legislation

    Brief Description

    Easement Act


    This law allows private rights to use a resource that is, groundwater, by viewing it as an attachment to the land. It also states that all surface water belongs to the state and is a state property.


    Indian Fisheries Act


    This law establishes two sets of penal offences whereby the government can sue any person who uses dynamite or other explosive substance in any way (whether coastal or inland) with intent to catch or destroy any fish or poisonous fish in order to kill.

    Factories Act

    1948 and amended in 1987

    It was the first to express concern for the working environment of the workers. The amendment of 1987 has sharpened its environmental focus and expanded its application to hazardous processes.

    River Boards Act


    This law enables the states to enroll the central government in setting up an Advisory River Board to resolve issues in inter-state cooperation.

    Merchant Shipping Act


    It aims to deal with waste arising from ships along the coastal areas within a specified radius.

    Wildlife Protection Act

    1972-73 and Amendment in 1991

    It provides for the protection of birds and animals and for all matters that are connected to it whether it be their habitat or the waterhole or the forests that sustain them.


    Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act


    It establishes an institutional structure for preventing and abating water pollution. It establishes standards for water quality and effluent. Polluting industries must seek permission to discharge waste into effluent bodies.

    The CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) was constituted under this act.

    Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act


    It provides for the levy and collection of cess or fees on water consuming industries and local authorities.

    Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Rules


    This law contains the standard definitions and indicate the kind of and location of meters that every consumer of water is required to affix.

    Forest (Conservation) Act and Rules


    It provides for the protection of and the conservation of the forests.

    Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act


    It provides for the control and abatement of air pollution. It entrusts the power of enforcing this act to the CPCB.

    Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules


    This law defines the procedures of the meetings of the Boards and the powers entrusted to them.

    Environment (Protection) Act


    It authorizes the central government to protect and improve environmental quality, control and reduce pollution from all sources, and prohibit or restrict the setting and /or operation of any industrial facility on environmental grounds.

    Environment (Protection) Rules


    It lay down procedures for setting standards of emission or discharge of environmental pollutants.

    Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act


    This law empowers the central and state pollution control boards to meet with grave emergencies of air pollution.

    Objective of Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Rules


    To control the generation, collection, treatment, import, storage, and handling of hazardous waste.

    Manufacture, Storage, and Import of Hazardous Rules


    It defines the terms used in this context, and sets up an authority to inspect, once a year, the industrial activity connected with hazardous chemicals and isolated storage facilities.

    Manufacture, Use, Import, Export, and Storage of hazardous Micro-organisms/ Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells Rules


    It was introduced with a view to protect the environment, nature, and health, in connection with the application of gene technology and micro-organisms.

    Coastal Regulation Zone Notification


    This law puts regulations on various activities, including construction, are regulated. It gives some protection to the backwaters and estuaries.

    Public Liability Insurance Act and Rules

    1991 and Amendment in  1992

    It was drawn up to provide for public liability insurance for the purpose of providing immediate relief to the persons affected by accident while handling any hazardous substance.

    National Environmental Tribunal Act


    This has been created to award compensation for damages to persons, property, and the environment arising from any activity involving hazardous substances.

    National Environment Appellate Authority Act


    This has been created to hear appeals with respect to restrictions of areas in which classes of industries etc. are carried out or prescribed subject to certain safeguards under the EPA.

    Biomedical waste (Management and Handling) Rules


    It is a legal binding on the health care institutions to streamline the process of proper handling of hospital waste such as segregation, disposal, collection, and treatment.

    Environment (Siting for Industrial Projects) Rules


    It lay down detailed provisions relating to areas to be avoided for siting of industries, precautionary measures to be taken for site selecting as also the aspects of environmental protection which should have been incorporated during the implementation of the industrial development projects.

    Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules


    This law apply to every municipal authority responsible for the collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing, and disposal of municipal solid wastes.

    Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Rules


    This has been laid down for the regulation of production and consumption of ozone depleting substances.

    Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules


    This law shall apply to every manufacturer, importer, re-conditioner, assembler, dealer, auctioneer, consumer, and bulk consumer involved in the manufacture, processing, sale, purchase, and use of batteries or components so as to regulate and ensure the environmentally safe disposal of used batteries.

    Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) (Amendment) Rules


    It lay down such terms and conditions as are necessary to reduce noise pollution, permit use of loud speakers or public address systems during night hours (between 10:00 p.m. to 12:00 midnight) on or during any cultural or religious festive occasion.

    Biological Diversity Act


    It is an act to provide for the conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its components, and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the use of biological resources and knowledge associated with it.

    In the above list of legislation on environment and ecology in India will strengthen the knowledge of aspirants who are preparing for the examinations like UPSC, State Services, IBPS, SBI, SCC, and Railways etc.

    Environment & Ecology: Complete Study Material

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