1. Home
  2.  |  
  3. GK for Exams  |  

Salt: Concept, properties and uses

01-MAR-2016 15:22

    Salt is an ionic compound that results from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.It is composed of related numbers of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). They may be simple salts such as NaCl, KCl, and Na2SO4; acid salts like NaHCO3 and NaH2PO4; or double salts like KAl (SO4)2.


    In other words, a salt is a compound formed by partial or complete replacement of the replaceable hydrogen atoms from an acid molecule by means of metal or a radical which acts like a metal. For example –


    Types of Salts

    Normal Salt: A normal salt is a salt formed by the complete replacement of replaceable hydrogen atoms from an acid molecule by means of a metal or a group of elements acting like a metal.  Examples: The compounds like KCl, NaCl, FeS04, Na2S04, FeCl2 etc are normal salts. Obviously a normal salt doesn't contain replaceable H-atom in its molecule.

    Acid Salt: An acid salt is that which contains one or more replaceable hydrogen atoms in its molecule and is formed by partial replacement of H- atoms present in an acid molecule by means of metal or positive radical.  Examples: The compounds like NaHS04, NaHC03, KHC03, NaH2PO etc are acid salts.

    Basic Salt

    Basic Salt: A salt which contains 02- or OH- group in its molecule is called basic salt.  Examples: The compounds like Mg (OH) Cl, [Mg (OH)2 . MgC03], [Cu (OH) 2.CuCO3) etc are basic salts.

    NH4OH + HCl → NH4Cl + H2O

    Acidic Salt: A normal salt which is formed by the neutralisation of a strong acid and weak base is called acidic salt because its aqueous solution turns blue litmus red. Examples: The compounds like FeCI3, ZnCl2, HgCl2, Fe2 (S04)3, HgS04 etc are acidic salts.

    2NaOH + H2CO3  Na2CO+ 2H2O

    Alkaline Salt: Normal salts which are formed by the neutralisation of weak acids and strong bases are called alkaline salts because their aqueous solutions turn red litmus blue. Examples: The compounds like Na2C03, CH3COONa, Na2C24, Na2B47.10 H20 etc are alkaline salts.

    NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O

    Neutral Salt: They are formed by the neutralisation of strong acids and strong bases, are called neutral salts because their aqueous solutions are neutral to litmus.  Examples: The compounds like NaCl, KCl, K2S04, NaN03, KCl03, KClO4 etc are neutral salts.

    Double Salt: A double salt is a mixture of two salts which on dissolution in water gives two types of metal ions.  Examples: The compounds like Potash Alum [K2S04. Al2 (S04)3. 24 H20], Mohr's salt [FeS04. (NH4)2S04. 6H20], Ferric Alum [K2S04. Fe2 (SO4)3.24 H20] etc are double salts.

    Complex Salt: A complex salt is a salt which contains a complex ion or complex neutral molecule in which there is a central metal ion surrounded by a number of neutral molecules or negative ions.  Examples: The compounds like potassium ferrocyanide (K4[Fe(CN)6]), potassium argento cyanide (K [Ag(CN)2]) tetra amino cupric sulphate  ([Cu(NH3)4]SO4) etc are complex salts.

    Uses of Salts

    The uses of the salts are given below in tabular form:



    Common Salt (NaCl) Sodium Chloride

    • Common salt is used in cooking gas.
    • It is used as a preservative in pickles and in curing meat and fish.
    • It is used in the manufacture of soap.
    • It is used to melt the ice in winter in cold countries.
    • Used in making large chemicals like washing soda, baking soda etc.

    Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)

    • Used for making soap and detergent.
    • used for making artificial textile fiber (rayon)
    • Used in the manufacture of paper.
    • Used in purifying bauxite ore.
    • Used in de-greasing metals, oil refining and making dyes and bleaches.

    Washing Soda (NaCO3.10 H2O) Sodium Carbonate

    • Used as a 'cleansing agent' for domestic purposes like washing Clothes.
    • Used to remove permanent hardness of water.
    • Used in the manufacture of glass, soap and paper.
    • Used in the manufacture of sodium compounds such as borax.

    Baking Soda (NaHCO3) Sodium Bicarbonate

    • Used as an antacid.
    • Used in making baking powder which is used in making cakes, bread etc.
    • Used in fire extinguishers.

    Bleaching Powder (CaOCl2) Calcium hydro chlorite

    • Used in textile industry for bleaching cotton and linen and in paper.
    • Industry for bleaching wood pulp.
    • Used for disinfecting drinking water.
    • used in the manufacture of chloroform (CHCl3)
    • Used for making wool unshrinkable.
    • Used as oxidizing agent in many chemical industries.

    Plaster  of Paris

    CaS04 1/2 H2O)

    Calcium sulphate

    hemi hydrate

    • Used in hospital for setting fractured bone.
    • Used for making toys, decoration material cheap ornament, chalk etc.
    • used for fire-proofing material
    • Used for making surface smooth.

    Image Courtesy: www.executiveemotionalintelligence.com

    Latest Videos

    Register to get FREE updates

      All Fields Mandatory
    • (Ex:9123456789)
    • Please Select Your Interest
    • Please specify

    • ajax-loader
    • A verifcation code has been sent to
      your mobile number

      Please enter the verification code below

    This website uses cookie or similar technologies, to enhance your browsing experience and provide personalised recommendations. By continuing to use our website, you agree to our Privacy Policy and Cookie Policy. OK