Shahabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan

The Fifth Mughal Emperor of India was Shah Jahan, and was considered as the best Mughal emperor. He was extremely anxious to enlarge his enormous kingdom. Shah Jahan was restricted via his child and heir Aurangzeb in Agra Fort, in 1658, when he fell sick. His approach towards non - Muslims was less liberal, as he was an Orthodox Muslim, as compared with the behaviour of his father and grandfather Jahangir and Akbar, respectively, towards Non - Muslims.
Created On: Sep 8, 2015 18:20 IST

Early Life

Shah Jahan was born as Prince Shihab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram, his name means "joyful" in Persian language, and his Grandfather "Akbar the Great" gave him the name "Khurram".

He got the title "Shah Jahan Bahadur" from his father, when he got impressed from his child, that too at a very early age. He presented extraordinary military abilities against the Lodi in the Deccan, and also the Mewar and the Kangra.

Another title given to Shah Jahan was "The Builder of the Marvels", as he had a remarkable ability of designing new structures re-designing old forts.


He was the originator of the glorious monument Taj Mahal, the Moti Masjid in Lahore- now in Pakistan, Jama Masjid of Delhi, Section of Agra Fort, and the Wazir Khan Mosque Red Fort of Delhi.

Shah Jahan's instructions proved out to be exceptional in order to get victories on the Deccan states. By 1636, Ahmadnagar had been added along with that Golconda and Bijapur, and were forced to end up their tributaries. Mughal power was furthermore connected in the northwest. In 1638, the Persian governor head of Kandahar, ʿAli Mardan Khan, surrendered that post to the Mughals.


  • In 1608, when Shah Jahan was only 15 years old got he engaged to 14 years old Arjumand Banu Begum. So, the prince has to wait for five years for marriage.
  • Shah Jahan had his first daughter as a child from the daughter of a great grandson of Shah Ismail of Persia "Kandahari Begum", with whom Shah Jahan married initially.

Mumtaz mahal

  1. In 1612, when Shah Jahan was 20 years of age, wedded Arjumand Banu Begum, who was given the title Mumtaz Mahal.
  2. The wedding was a cheerful and Shah Jahan stayed dedicated to Mumtaz Mahal throughout his life. She gave birth to fourteen children of Shah Jahan, out of which only seven survived till adulthood.
  3. Mumtaz Mahal died, when she was of 40 years old, due to postpartum haemorrhage, at the time of giving birth to her fourteenth child, whose name was Gauhara Begum, and her place of birth was Burhanpur.
  4. Her body was temporarily buried into a garden, which was build up by Shah Jahan's uncle Prince Daniyal along the side of River Tapti, which was an enclosed garden known as Zainabad.
  5. Death of Mumtaz Mahal had made a significant effect on Shah Jahan's personality and proves out to be a motivational factor for the construction of the Taj Mahal, where the body of Mumtaz Mahal was reburied later on.


At the point when Shah Jahan turned out to be sick in 1658, Shah Jahan's and Mumtaz Mahal's eldest son Dara Shikoh, come forward and accepted the responsibility of regent in his father's name. After getting the knowledge of his suspicion of the regency, Dara Shikoh’s younger siblings, Shuja, who was the Viceroy of Bengal, and Murad Baksh, who was the Viceroy of Gujarat, announced their freedom, and walked towards Agra with a specific end goal to claim the wealth of their father.

Aurangzeb, the third son, and most able son among the siblings, accumulated a prepared an efficient armed force and turned into its chief commander. He faced Dara Shikoh's armed force close to Agra and crushed them in the Battle of Samugarh.

In spite of getting completely recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared Shah Jahan to be incompetent to administer the empire and Aurangzeb put him under arrest in the house of Agra Fort.

In January 1666, Shah Jahan fell seriously ill and got confined to bed; he turned out to be continuously weaker until, 22 January. The Shah Jahan's chaplain Kazi Qurban and Sayyid Muhammad Qanauji of Agra came to the fortress, then they moved his body to a close-by corridor, washed it, enshrouded it and place it in a coffin of sandalwood.

The body was then taken to Taj Mahal in Agra and was buried by river alongside with the body of his dearest wife Mumtaz Mahal.

Full name

A'la Azad Abul Muzaffar Shahab ud-Din Mohammad Khurram


5 January 1592, in Lahore, Pakistan


1628 to 1658, this time was thought as the "Golden age" of Mughal Architecture


The Jahangir


Taj Bibi Bilqis Makani


Mughal Empire




22 January 1666, in Agra Fort, Agra ,Mughal Empire, India


Taj Mahal


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