Green Revolution in India resulted in increased productivity of different crops. The main instruments behind this increment were the use of high yielding variety seeds, chemical fertilizers and new technology which led to a sharp rise in agricultural productivity during the middle 1960s. The credit for this improvement goes to Nobel laureates Dr. Norman Borlaug and Dr. M.S. Swaminathan. This revolution increased the production of Wheat 2.5 times; Rice 3 times, Maize 3.5 times, Jowar 5 times and Bajra 5.5 times.
Instruments which promoted Green Revolution are given below:
Increase in agricultural production and productivity depends, to a large extent, on the availability of water, hence the importance of irrigation. However, the availability of irrigation facilities is highly inadequate in India. For example, in 1950-51, gross irrigated area as percentage of gross cropped area was only 17 per cent. Despite massive investments on irrigation projects over the period of planning, gross irrigated area as percentage of gross cropped area was only 45.3 per cent in 2009-10 (88.42 million hectares out of 195.10 million hectares). Even now, almost 55 per cent of gross cropped area depends on rains. That is why Indian agriculture is called 'a gamble in the monsoons'.
Reasons for increased Irrigation in the Indian context
Irrigation Potential and Sources of Irrigation
India has vastly increased its irrigation potential since Independence. It increased from 22.6 million hectares in 1950-51 to 102.8 million hectares in 2006-07 which implies an increase of 35.5 per cent. Sources of irrigation in India can be divided into the following:
Approximately 26.3 per cent of the irrigated areas in India are watered by canals. This includes large areas of land in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and parts of southern States. Taken together, canals and wells watered 87.3 per cent of net irrigated area in 2008-09. Tank irrigation is resorted to mostly in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and parts of West Bengal and Bihar.
Some Problems Related to Irrigation
Indian farmers use only one-tenth the amount of manure that is necessary to maintain the productivity of soil. Indian soil is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus and this deficiency can be made good by an increased use of fertilizers. Since possibilities of extensive cultivation are extremely limited because most of the cultivable area is already being cultivated, there is no option but to extend intensive cultivation in more and more areas by using larger quantities of fertilizers.
Consumption, Production and Import of Fertilisers
The production of fertilisers has increased by leaps and bounds in the post-Independence period. For instance, from 98 thousand tonnes in 1960-61, production of nitrogenous fertilisers shot up to 12,156 thousand tonnes in 2010-11. The production of phosphate fertilisers rose from 52 thousand tonnes in 1960-61 to 4,222 thousand tonnes in 2010-11.
Other instruments are:
So it can be concluded that the availability of the instruments and the productivity of the agriculture is positively related to each other. If the instruments are available to the farmers then increment in the productivity is inevitable.