Statement on Climate of India during 2020: All you need to know
A Statement on Climate of India during 2020 has been issued by the Climate Research and Services (CRS) of the India Meteorological Department (IMD). It is mentioned that the year 2020 was the eighth warmest year on record since 1901. The State of the Climate Report mentions the temperature and rainfall annually.
Highlights of the report
During 2020, the annual mean land surface air temperature averaged over India was above normal.
In that year, the annual mean land surface air temperature averaged over the country was +0.29 0C which was above normal and based on the data of 1981-2010.
On record, the year 2020 was the eighth warmest year since nation-wide records commenced in 1901. It is said that this is substantially lower than the highest warming observed over India during 2016 (+0.710C).
Factors that contributed to this warming is the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons with mean temperature anomalies that are Actual temperature-Normal temperature of +0.430C and +0.530C respectively.
During winter, the mean temperature was also above normal with an anomaly of +0.140C, and during the pre-monsoon season temperature was below normal (-0.030C).
During 2020 (January to October as per WMO state of the global climate), the global mean temperature anomaly was +1.20C.
The annual rainfall in 2020 over the country as a whole was 109% of its Long Period Average (LPA) based on the data of 1961-2010. The monsoon season rainfall over the country as a whole was above normal that is 109% of its LPA.
State of the Climate Report 2020: Eighth Warmest Year 2020
Let us first have a look at the Average Temperature
The annual average temperature during the year in the country was 0.290C above the 1981-2010 period average. This made the year 2020 the eighth warmest year on record since 1901. However, it is lower than the highest warming observed over India during 2016 (+0.710C).
Such trends of temperature were reported despite the cooling effect of La Nina. It is a global weather pattern that prevailed in 2020 and is linked to substantially below normal temperatures in winter.
Let us tell you that on global temperatures, La Nina has a cooling effect but due to global warming, greenhouse gas emissions, it is disturbed. Therefore, La Nina years are now warmer as compared to the years with El Nino events of the past.
On the surface of the sea when there is a periodic fluctuation in temperature then it is known as ENSO (El Nino and the Southern Oscillation) and the air pressure of the overlying atmosphere across the equatorial Pacific Ocean. It poses an influence on weather and climate patterns including heavy rains, floods, and drought.
Now let us have a look at the Warmest Years over India
The five warmest years on record in order were: 2016 (+0.710C), 2009 (+0.550C), 2017 (+0.5410C), 2010 (+0.5390C), and 2015 (+0.420C). During the recent fifteen years (2006-2020), it may be mentioned that 12 out of 15 were the warmest years.
On record past decade (2001-2010/ 2011-2020) was also the warmest decade with anomalies of 0.230C /0.340C.
During 1901-2020, the country averaged annual mean temperature also showed an increasing trend of 0.620C/100 years with a significant increasing trend in maximum temperature (0.990C/100 years) and a relatively lower increasing trend (0.240C/100 years) in minimum temperature.
The Past decade (2001-2010/ 2011-2020) was also the warmest decade on record.
About High Impact Weather Events
Some high-impact weather events are also experienced by the country like extremely heavy rainfall, floods, landslide, thunderstorm, lightning, cold waves, etc.
Due to thunderstorms, lightning & cold wave events, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh were the most adversely affected states during the year which reportedly claimed more than 350 deaths from each state.
During pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons due to heavy rainfall & flood-related incidents reportedly claimed over 600 lives from different parts of the country.
Now let us have a look at the data on Tropical Storms
Worldwide over 30 tropical storms were originated in the Atlantic Ocean and experienced one of the most active years.
Five cyclones were reported together in the Indian Ocean region, the Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal namely Amphan, Nisarga, Gati, Nivar, and Burevi.
Of these, Nisarga & Gati formed over the Arabian Sea, while the remaining 3 cyclones viz. Amphan, Nivar & Burevi formed over the Bay of Bengal.
About Rainfall data
During the SW monsoon season (June-September), rainfall over the country as a whole was above normal that is 109% of LPA (Long Period Average).
During the Northeast monsoon season in 2020 (October-December) rainfall over the country as a whole was normal that is 101% of LPA.
At the end let us have a look at the Indian Meteorological Department
The Government of India established the India Meteorological Department in 1875.
The first Director-General of Observatories was Sir John Eliot who was appointed in May 1889 at Calcutta headquarters.
The headquarters of IMD were later shifted to Shimla, then to Poona (now Pune), and finally to New Delhi.
IMD is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India and is accountable for meteorological observations, weather forecasting, and seismology.
Source: pib, imd.gov.in