CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2018 – 2019

CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Geography is available here. It contains complete information related to the course structure, paper pattern, map work and projects.

Created On: Apr 12, 2018 10:47 IST
Modified On: Apr 12, 2018 12:55 IST
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Geography
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Geography

CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Geography is available here. This syllabus is applicable for the academic session 2018 – 2019. This syllabus contains complete information related to the course structure,  paper pattern, map work and projects.

Being an entry point for the higher education, students choose Geography for pursuing their academic interest and, therefore, need a broader and deeper understanding of the subject. For others, geographical knowledge is useful in daily lives because it is a valuable medium for the education of young people. Its contribution lies in the content, cognitive processes, skills and values that Geography promotes and thus helps the students explore, understand and evaluate the environmental and social dimensions of the world in a better manner. The Geography syllabus is designed while taking this thought process into account.  

Students of Class 12 having Geography as one of their subjects should follow this syllabus to score well in the board exam.

Important portion of CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus is given below:


Fundamentals of Human Geography

35 Marks


Unit 1: Human Geography



Unit 2: People


Unit 3: Human Activities


Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade


Unit 5: Human settlements


Map Work



India: People and Economy

35 Marks


Unit 6: People



Unit 7: Human Settlements


Unit 8: Resources and Development


Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade


Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems


Map Work



Practical Work

30 Marks


Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping



Unit 2: Field study or Spatial Information Technology



Unit 3: Practical Record Book and Viva Voce








Class 12 Geography Sample Paper: (Issued by CBSE)

Part-A: Fundamentals of Human Geography

Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope

Unit 2: People

• Population-distribution, density and growth

•Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;

• Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;

• Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit 3: Human Activities

• Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries.

• Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types - household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities - some examples from selected countries.

•Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries.

•Quatenary activities-concept; people engaged in quatenary activities - case study from selected countries.

CBSE Class 12 Question Papers: 2017

Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade

•Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways.

• Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes.

• Air transport- Intercontinental air routes.

• Oil and gas pipelines.

• Satellite communication and cyber space- Importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS.

• International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.

• Ocean: National rights and international treaties.

Unit 5: Human Settlements

• Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.

Map Work on identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of World.

Part B. India: People and Economy 90 Periods

Unit 6: People

• Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population - linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population.

• Migration: international, national-causes and consequences.

• Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns.

• Population, environment and development.

Unit 7: Human Settlements

• Rural settlements - types and distribution.

• Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification.

Unit 8: Resources and Development 30 Periods

• Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.

• Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management.

• Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation.

• Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location; industrial clusters.

•Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development

(case study).

Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade

• Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks.

• International trade- changing pattern of India's foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.

Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems 15 Periods

• Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal.

• Urbanisation, rural-urban migration; problems of slums.

• Land degradation.

Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on outline map of India. 05 Marks

Part-C Practical Work

Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping

• Type and Sources of data: Primary, Secondary and other sources.

• Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central tendency, deviation and rank correlation.

• Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart; thematic maps; construction of dot; choropleth and isopleth maps.

• Data analysis and generation of diagrams, graphs and other visual diagrams using computers.

Unit 2: Field Study or Spatial Information Technology

Field visit and study:

map orientation, observation and preparation of sketch; survey on any one of the local concerns; pollution, ground water changes, land use and land-use changes, poverty, energy issues, soil degradation, impact of floods and drought, catchment area of school, Market survey and Household survey (any one topic of local concern may be taken up for the study; observation and questionnaire survey may be adopted for the data collection; collected data may be tabulated and analysed with diagrams and maps). Students can be given different topics to get more insight into various problems of society.


Spatial Information Technology

Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; raster and vector data, data input, editing and topology building; data analysis; overlay and buffer.

Prescribed Books:

1. Fundamentals of Human Geography, Class XII, Published by NCERT

2. India - People and Economy, Class XII, Published by NCERT

3. Practical Work in Geography, Class XII, Published by NCERT

Download CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus (2018- 2019) in PDF format

Jagran Play
रोमांचक गेम्स खेलें और जीतें एक लाख रुपए तक कैश
ludo_expresssnakes_ladderLudo miniCricket smash
ludo_expresssnakes_ladderLudo miniCricket smash
Comment (0)

Post Comment

5 + 7 =
Disclaimer: Comments will be moderated by Jagranjosh editorial team. Comments that are abusive, personal, incendiary or irrelevant will not be published. Please use a genuine email ID and provide your name, to avoid rejection.