For the aspirants of IAS Exam 2016, it is very important to choose such readings which are more informative as well as less exhaustive to study. The textbooks provided by NCERT are of such kind which contains a complete package of any stream. Such textbooks are very important for the aspirants who are engaged in preparing for various competitive exams. The aspirants of IAS Exam always faces challenges to complete their given syllabus of respective exams, so, NCERT textbooks have been proved as better tools for the IAS Exam Preparation.
Chapter 1: THE EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM
How wonderful it is to watch the sky after sunset! One would first notice one or two bright dots shining in the sky. Soon you would see the number increasing. You cannot count them any more. The whole sky is filled with tiny shining objects – some are bright, others dim. It seems as if the sky is studded with diamonds. They all appear to be twinkling. But if you look at them carefully you will notice that some of them do not twinkle as others do. They simply glow without any flicker just as the moon shines.
Chapter 2: GLOBE: LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES
In the previous chapter, you have read that our planet earth is not a sphere. It is slightly flattened at the North and the South Poles and bulge in the middle. Can you imagine how it looks? You may look at a globe carefully in your classroom to get an idea. Globe is a true model (miniature form) of the earth.
Chapter 3: MOTIONS OF THE EARTH
As you know that the earth has two types of motions, namely rotation and revolution. Rotation is the movement of the earth on its axis. The movement of the earth around the sun in a fixed path or orbit is called Revolution.
Chapter 4: MAPS
You have learnt in the previous chapter about the advantages of a globe. However, globe has limitations as well. A globe can be useful when we want to study the earth as a whole. But, when we want to study only a part of the earth, as about our country, states, districts, towns and villages, it is of little help. In such a situation we use maps. A map is a representation or a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale. But it is impossible to flatten a round shape completely.
Chapter 5: MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH
As you have read in the first chapter, the earth is the only planet which has life. Human beings can live here because the life sustaining elements of land, water and air are present on the earth. The surface of the earth is a complex zone in which three main components of the environment meet, overlap and interact.
Chapter 6: MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH
You must have seen some of the landform features as shown in the Figure 6.1 below. You will notice that the surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. The earth has an infinite variety of landforms. Some parts of the lithosphere may be rugged and some flat.
Chapter 7: OUR COUNTRY – INDIA
India is a country of vast geographical expanse. In the north, it is bound by the lofty Himalayas. The Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Indian Ocean in the south, wash the shores of the Indian peninsula.
Chapter 8: INDIA: CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or hear others talking about weather. You must know that weather is about day to day changes in the atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature, rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You must have noticed that when it is hot continuously for several days you don’t need any warm clothing. You also like to eat or drink cold things.