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UPSC IAS Prelims Exam: Medieval History NCERT Questions : Socio-Cultural Life under the Mughals II

Jun 21, 2016 15:13 IST

    Old edition of NCERT Books are still high in demand in terms of UPSC IAS Exam Preparation because it has extensive coverage of the topics given in the UPSC IAS Exam syllabus. The IAS aspirants find it difficult to get an old edition NCERT book from market due to its unavailability in the market.


    Here, we have provided Multiple Choice Questions of Medieval Indian History which have been created from the old edition of NCERT book, go and check your level of your Preparation of IAS Prelims Exam.

    1.    Who among the followings was the judicial department head during the Mughal period?
    a.    Qazi
    b.    Mir Bakhshi
    c.    Mir Saman
    d.    Diwan

    Answer: a

    Explanation:

    The fourth important department was the judicial department headed by the chief qazi. This post was sometimes combined with that of the chief sadr who was responsible for all charitable and religious endowments.

    2.    Consider the following statements regarding Jhrokha during Akbar’s rule:
    I.    Akbar started his day with his appearance at the jharoka of the palace.
    II.    In order to make himself accessible to the people as well as to the ministers, Akbar carefully divided his time.
    III.    Large numbers of people assembled daily to have a glimpse of the ruler, and to present petitions to him if necessary.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    I and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    In order to make himself accessible to the people as well as to the ministers, Akbar carefully divided his time. The day started with the emperor’s appearance at the jharoka of the palace. Large numbers of people assembled daily to have a glimpse of the ruler, and to present petitions to him if necessary.
    Akbar had initiated the practice of “Jharokha Darshan” and “Tula­dan”. The Mughal emperors wielded unlimited powers but they were not cruel or selfish. They believed that the prime duty of a king was to look after the welfare of his subjects. Akbar was generous and always used to listen personally to the complaints of the people. In the matter of administration, the king was assisted by several ministers. The ministers advised the Emperor collectively as well as individually.

    3.    Consider the following statements regarding the income and wages of peasants during the Mughal period:
    I.    The village artisans were paid for their services by means of commodities which were fixed by custom.
    II.    The peasant who did not have his own ploughs and bullocks often tilled the land of the zamindars or the upper castes, and could eke out a bare existence.
    III.    The sixteenth century Hindi poet, Tulsidas has said that this type of cultivation was a source of misery.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    I and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    It has been estimated that the population in India at the beginning of the seventeenth century was about 125 million. Hence, there was an abundance or cultivable land available and it may be surmised that peasant proprietors were more numerous than the pahis and the village artisans.
    The village artisans were paid for their services by means of commodities which were fixed by custom. It is difficult to compute the average size of the holding of the peasant. The information available shows that there was a great deal of inequality in the villages. The peasant who did not have his own ploughs and bullocks often tilled the land of the zamindars or the upper castes, and could eke out a bare existence. Peasants of this type were called pahis.

    The sixteenth century Hindi poet, Tulsidas has said that this type of cultivation was a source of misery. Whenever there was a famine-and famines were frequent—it was this class of peasants and the village artisans who suffered the most. The peasants who owned the land they tilled are called khudkasht. They paid land revenue at customary rates. Some of them had many ploughs and bullocks which they let out to their poorer brethren.

    4.    Consider the following statements regarding the Zamindars of Mughal Period:
    I.    Personal ownership of land was very old in India which is evident from the accounts of various scholars of medieval period.
    II.    The tradition was that anyone who first brought land under cultivation’ was considered its owner.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    only II
    c.    Both I and II
    d.    Neither I nor II

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    From the writings of Abul Fazi and other contemporary authors, it is clear that personal ownership of land was very old in India. The right of ownership in land depended mainly on succession. But new rights of ownership of land were, being created all the time.

    The tradition was that anyone who first brought land under cultivation’ was considered its owner. There was plenty or cultivable waste-land (banjar) available in medieval times. It was not difficult for an enterprising group of people to settle a new village or to bring a under cultivation the wetlands belonging to a village and become the owners of these lands.

    5.    With reference to the madad-i-maash of Mughal period which of the following statement is correct?
    a.    The land grants received by king from the family of girl to whom the king has to marry.
    b.    The land grants received by a large class of religious divines and learned men who in return for their services.
    c.    Such grants called shasan in Maharashtra.
    d.    There was no provision for renewing of such grants by new ruler and had no hereditary in practice.

    Answer: b

    Explanation:


    In addition to the zamindars, there was a large class of religious divines and learned men who in return for their services were granted tracts of land for their maintenance. Such grants were called milk of madad-i-maash in Mughal terminology, and shasan in Rajasthan.

    Although these grants were to be renewed by every ruler, they often became hereditary in practice. Many of the grantees held official positions such as that of the qazi, etc. Hence, they had both a rural and an urban base. Writers, historians, hakims, etc., were also often drawn from this section.

    6.    Who among the followings was/were the grantees of madad-i-maash?
    a.    Qazi
    b.    Hakims
    c.    Historians
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Many of the grantees held official positions such as that or the qazi, etc. Hence, they had both a rural and an urban bases Writers, historians, hakims, etc., were also often drawn from this section.

    The historians have little idea about the living standards of this section. In course of time, some of them began to be regarded a part of the rural gentry. It is possible that along with the rich peasants these local gentry provided a limited market for products of the city, and also for the products of the superior, type of rural artisans.

    7.    Consider the following statements regarding high degree of professionalism among Indian merchants of during Mughal period:
    I.    There was high degree of professionalism among the Indian merchants were some specialised in wholesale trade, and others in retail trade.
    II.    The wholesale traders were called as the beoparis or banik while the retail traders were called as the seth or bohra.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    only II
    c.    Both I and II
    d.    Neither I nor II

    Answer: a

    Explanation:


    There was high degree of professionalism among the Indian merchants. Some specialised in wholesale trade and others in retail trade, the former being called seth or bohra and the latter beoparis or banik.

    In south India, the chettis formed the trading community. There was a special class, banjaras, who specialised in the carrying trade. The banjaras used to move from place to place, sometimes with thousands of oxen, laden with food grains, salt, ghee, etc.

    8.    Consider the following statements regarding the ‘qanungos’, the hereditary holders of lands during the Mughal reign of Akabar:
    I.    The qanungos, who were hereditary holders of land as well as local officials conversant with local conditions, were ordered to report on the actual produce, state of cultivation, local prices, etc.
    II.    It is said that, in every area, the qanungos were considered as the most faithful and loyal officials towards their Mughal rulers.
    III.    It is said that, in every area, the qanungos were dishonest and often concealed the real produce of the land.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    I and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    The qanungos, who were hereditary holders of land as well as local officials conversant with local conditions, were ordered to report on the actual produce, state of cultivation, local prices, etc. But in every area, the qanungos were dishonest and often concealed the real produce. Annual assessments also resulted in great difficulty for the peasants and for the state.

    9.    With reference to the prevalent system of administration during the reign of Akbar which of the following statement is incorrect?
    a.    Nasaq was a system of measurement and the assessment based upon that measurement.
    b.    In the galla-bakhshi system, the produce was divided between the peasants and the state in fixed proportion.
    c.    Zabti was a system of measurement and the assessment based upon that measurement.
    d.    The zabti system is associated with Raja Todar Mal, and k sometimes called Todar Mal's bandobast.

    Answer: a

    Explanation:

    A third system after zabti and galla-bakshi which was widely used in Akbar's time was nasaq. The historians are a bit uncertain about this system. It seems that it meant a rough calculation of the amount payable by the peasant on the basis of what he had been paying in the past. Hence, some modern historians think that it was merely a system of computing the peasant's dues, not a different system of assessment. Others think that it meant rough appraisement both on the basis of the inspection or the crops and past experience, and thereby fixing the amount to be paid by the village as a whole. It is also called kankut’.

    10.    Consider the following statement regarding Akbar’s interest in the cultivation throughout his kingdom:
    I. Akbar never shown his interest in any affairs of cultivation and he never cared about any improvement and extension of cultivation during his reign.
    II. Akbar advocated to provide advance money by way of loans (taccavi) to the peasants for seeds, implements, animals, etc., in times of need, and to recover them in easy instalments.
    III. Akbar asked the amil to act like a father to the peasants.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a. Only I
    b. I and II
    c. II and III
    d. All of the above

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    Akbar was deeply interested in the improvement and extension of cultivation. He asked the amil to act like a father to the peasants. He was to advance money by way of loans (taccavi) to the peasants for seeds, implements, animals, etc., in times of need, and to recover them in easy instalments.

    Akbar was to try and induce the peasants to plough as much land as possible and to sow superior quality crops. The zamindars of the area were also enjoined to cooperate in the task. The zamindars had a hereditary right to take a share of the produce. The peasants, too, had a hereditary right to cultivate their land and could not be ejected as long as they paid the land revenue.

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