Current Affairs 10 April 2019 Digest 1: New state of matter found; India becomes YouTube’s largest market
Researchers have found, however, that some elements can, when subjected to extreme conditions, take on the properties of both solid and liquid states.
Story 1: Scientists found new state of matter, solid and liquid at the same time
Scientists have found a new state of physical matter recently which is solid and liquid at the same time. According to the findings published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences atoms can exist as both solid and liquid simultaneously. Findings reveal that when applying high pressures and temperatures to potassium, a simple metal; it creates a state in which most of the element's atoms form a solid lattice structure.
Researchers have found, however, that some elements can, when subjected to extreme conditions, take on the properties of both solid and liquid states. Researchers have shown that this unusual but stable state is part solid and part liquid.
How the experiment was done?
As per the information published in national geographic , the computer models confirmed that between about 20,000 and 40,000 times atmospheric pressure and 400 to 800 Kelvin (260 to 980 degrees Fahrenheit), the potassium entered what’s called a chain-melted state, in which the chains dissolved into liquid while the remaining potassium crystals stayed solid.
- A team led by scientists from the University of Edinburgh used powerful computer simulations to study the existence of the state known as the chain melted state.
- Simulating how up to 20,000 potassium atoms behave under extreme conditions revealed that the structures formed represent the new, stable state of matter.
- Applying pressure to the atoms leads to the formation of two interlinked solid lattice structures.
- Chemical interactions between atoms in one lattice are strong, meaning they stay in a solid form when the structure is heated, while the other atoms melt into a liquid state.
- Under the right conditions, over half a dozen elements, including sodium and bismuth are thought to be capable of existing in the newly discovered state. Until now, it was unclear if the unusual structures represented a distinct state of matter, or existed as transition stages between two distinct states.
- The work was carried out in collaboration with scientists from Xi'an Jiantong University in China.
Story 2: India becomes YouTube’s largest market
YouTube’s CEO Susan Wojcicki confirms in annual flagship event Brandcast that India has become YouTube’s largest and fastest growing market. This annual event of Youtube was held at Mumbai on April 9, 2019. Also, ComScore data suggests that YouTube has more than 265 million monthly active users in India.
- In the last one year, YouTube’s consumption on mobile has increased to 85%, with 60% of the watch time coming from outside the six largest metros in India.
- The country has become YouTube’s largest and fastest growing market with 265 million Indians watching the video-sharing website every month.
- Today, YouTube creators have become effective storytellers, with more than 1,200 Indian creators crossing the million subscriber-milestones, compared to five years ago, when there were only two creators.
- User behaviour has shifted massively to mobile video and therein lays the opportunity for marketers today.
About Susan Wojcicki
- Susan Diane (born July 5, 1968) is a Polish-American technology executive. She has been the CEO of YouTube since February 2014.
- Wojcicki was involved in the founding of Google, and became Google's first marketing manager in 1999.
- She was in charge of Google's original video service, and after observing the success of YouTube, proposed the acquisition of YouTube by Google in 2006.
- Wojcicki was named one of Time's 100 most influential people in 2015 and described in a later issue of Time as “the most powerful woman on the Internet.”
- In 2018, Wojcicki ranked number 10 on Fortune's list of Most Powerful Women.
- YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
- Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim created the service in February 2005.
- Google bought the site in November 2006 for USD 1.65 billion; YouTube now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries.
- The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo.
- The video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, and can still be viewed on the site.
- The first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.