Employment and Unemployment situation in Cities and Towns in India

Oct 30, 2013 14:14 IST

Eighth quinquennial survey on employment and unemployment was released on 28 October 2013 based on the 66th round of NSS during July 2009 to June 2010. The report of the survey was estimated the employment and unemployment indicators of each of class 1 cities of India. The cities are categorized into different cities as per the population census 2001.

Categorization of cities and towns:

• Class 1 Cities - with population one million and above
• Class 2 towns - with population 50000 to one million
• Class 3 towns - with population less than 50000

The employment and unemployment was measured on the basis of three different approaches and they were:

• Usual status with a reference period of one year
• Current weekly status with one week reference period
• Current daily status based on the daily activity pursued during each day of the reference week

The survey was done in 7402 villages and 5252 urban blocks covering 100957 households. It enumerated 459784 people, which included 281327 in rural areas and 178457 in urban areas.

As per the survey among the Class 1 cities, Banaras saw about 35 percent women got employed in maximum and Agra saw minimum of employment of women which was only 2 percent.  

The key findings of the 66th round of NSS survey were:  


• The proportion of employed males of 15 years and above was 73 percent for class 1 cities and 74 percent for size class 2 towns and about 76 percent for size class 3 towns. For females of the same age group the corresponding proportions were - 17 percent for class 1 cities, 18 percent for size class 2 towns and nearly 21 percent for size class 3 towns
• Between 2004-05 and 2009-10 the proportion of usually employed males of age 15 years and above decreased by 3 percentage points for class 1 cities, 2 percentage points for size class 2 and 3 towns each. During this period, corresponding decrease for females was 3 percentage points in class 1 cities, 4 percentage points for size class 2 towns and 7 percentage points for size class 3 towns
• Among the class 1 cities, the Worker Population Ratio (WPR) for males of age 15 years and above in the usual status, was the highest in Surat and that was 87 percent and the lowest in Meerut with 49 percent. While for females, WPR was the highest in Varanasi of 35 percent and the lowest in Agra and that is 2 percent
• During the period 2009-10, the proportion of regular wage/salaried employees, in the usual status both among males and among females was higher than that of self-employed persons or casual labourers in class 1 cities and size class 2 towns. For size class 3 towns, proportion of self-employed was higher than regular wage/salaried employees and casual labourers for both males and females
• Among male workers of age 15 years and above in the usual status about 52 percent in class 1 cities, about 43 percent in size class 2 towns and about 31 percent in size class 3 towns were regular wage/salaried employees. Corresponding proportions for females were 58 percent for class 1 cities, 42 percent size class 2 towns and 23 percent for size class 3 towns
• Among male workers of age 15 years and above in the usual status, about 39 percent in class 1 cities, about 40 percent in size class 2 towns and about 45 percent in size class 3 towns were self-employed. Corresponding proportions for females were 33 percent for class 1 cities, 41 percent for size class 2 towns and 47 percent for size class 3 towns
• For males of age 15 years and above, the unemployment rate in the usual status remained at the same level between 2004-05 and 2009-10 in class 1 cities and it decreased by 1 percentage point for size class 2 towns and by 2 percentage points for size class 3 towns. For females, between 2004-05 and 2009-10, the unemployment rate in the usual status increased by 1 percentage point in class 1 cities and decreased for both size class 2 and size class 3 towns by nearly 2 percentage points each
• Among the workers in the usual status, the tertiary sector had the highest share of workers in 2009-10 compared to other two sectors in all size class of towns. Among male workers of age 15 years and above in urban India, about 59 percent were engaged in tertiary sector, about 35 per cent in secondary sector and about 6 percent in primary sector. Corresponding proportions for females were about 53 percent, 33 percent and 14 percent
• Among male workers of age 15 years and above according to the usual status in all class I cities, about 64 percent were engaged in tertiary sector, about 35 percent in secondary sector and about 1 percent in primary sector. Corresponding proportions for females were about 67 percent, 31 percent and 2 percent, respectively
• Among male workers of age 15 years and above according to the usual status in size class 2 towns, about 60 percent were engaged in tertiary sector, about 36 percent in secondary sector and about 4 percent in primary sector. Corresponding proportions for females were about 57 percent, 34 percent and 9 percent
• Among male workers of age 15 years and above according to the usual status in size class 3 towns, about 54 per cent were engaged in tertiary sector, about 33 per cent in secondary sector and about 13 per cent in primary sector. Corresponding proportions for females were about 36 percent, 34 percent and 30 percent
• Among male workers of age 15 years and above, according to usual status, the secondary sector registered nearly 3 percentage points decrease in the share of total workers during 2009-10 compared to 2004-05 for class 1 cities but increased for size class 2, size class 3 towns by 2 and 1 percentage points

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