The Union Cabinet on August 9, 2018 approved a few amendments in the instant triple talaq bill, making it permissible for a magistrate to give bail for the offence.
The amended triple talaq bill will be tabled in Rajya Sabha on August 10, 2018 for its approval.
The draft bill, officially called Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill 2017, was passed by the LoK Sabha in December 2017. The bill makes instant triple talaq a criminal offence. The bill was prepared by an inter-ministerial group headed by Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh.
Amendments approved by Cabinet
Provisions of the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2017
• The bill says that "any pronouncement of talaq by a person upon his wife, by words, either spoken or written or in electronic form or in any other manner whatsoever, shall be void and illegal."
• It makes instant triple talaq or talaq-e-biddat illegal and void, be it in any form- spoken form, in writing or by electronic means such as email, SMS and WhatsApp or in any other manner whatsoever.
• It defines 'talaq' as 'talaq-e-biddat' pronounced by a Muslim man resulting in instant and irrevocable divorce. Talaq-e-biddat refers to the practice under Muslim personal laws where pronouncement of the word ‘talaq’ thrice in one sitting by a Muslim man to his wife results in an instant and irrevocable divorce.
• It makes declaration of talaq a cognizable and non-bailable offence. A husband declaring talaq can be imprisoned for up to three years along with a fine.
• Any offence committed under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 will be treated as cognisable and non-bailable.
• It envisages entitling divorcee Muslim women for maintenance. It gives power to wife, upon whom talaq is pronounced, to approach a magistrate seeking subsistence allowance for herself and her minor children.
• A married Muslim woman will be entitled to custody of her minor children in the event of pronouncement of talaq by her husband, which will be determined by the Magistrate.
• The Bill will help in ensuring gender justice and gender equality of married Muslim women and will help them in practising their fundamental rights of non-discrimination and empowerment.
Supreme Court's ruling on instant Triple Talaq
• The Bill was prepared following the Supreme Court’s verdict of August 22, 2017, which held the Islamic practice of 'instant’ triple talaq' as unconstitutional.
• The verdict was delivered by a 5-judge bench led by the then Chief Justice J S Kehar. All the 5 judges belonged to 5 different religions.
• The verdict came out in a ratio of 3:2, as two judges including the Chief Justice voted to uphold the practice saying that it cannot be declared illegal, while others called it unconstitutional and banned it for a period of 6 months till the government introduced a new law.
• The court also held that the practice of instant triple talaq was violative of Article 14 and Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. It also goes against Shariat and the basic tenets of the Quran.
What is the concept of Triple Talaq as per Islamic Law?
• Among Muslims, marriage is treated as a social contract and the Muslim Sharia (Islamic Law) provides the ways to terminate marriage in the form talaq.
• The term 'talaq' means 'freeing or undoing the knot', referring to a divorce.
• Triple talaq is basically a process of Divorce wherein the husband pronounces three talaqs upon wife, one in each menstrual cycle, only to ensure that she is not pregnant.
During the time of Prophet Mohammed, triple talaq was given in different time spans. Later, the tradition of triple talaq being pronounced at a single instance came to be accepted; and over the years, this practice was institutionalised.
The practice of instant triple talaq became controversial in recent decades, as it has been misused by married men to get rid of their wives for petty reasons. This kind of triple talaq in an impulsive and instantaneous manner raised concerns in the Muslim Community.
Islamic countries which have already banned the practice of triple talaq
• 10 Islamic countries have already banned the practise of instant triple talaq including Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Morocco, Tunisia, Indonesia and Malaysia.
• Countries like Bangladesh and Pakistan even have penal provisions like jail for one year for husbands who pronounce 'talaq' thrice at once.
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