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NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History: Chapter 5 - Pastoralists in the Modern World (Social Science)

Get NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History: Chapter 5 - Pastoralists in the Modern World (Social Science) and prepare for CBSE 9th Social Science (SST) exams 2020-21.

Apr 24, 2020 20:00 IST
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NCERT Solutions for 9th SST: Chapter 5
NCERT Solutions for 9th SST: Chapter 5

Get NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History: Chapter 5 - Pastoralists in the Modern World (Social Science) and prepare for CBSE 9th Social Science (SST) exams 2020-21. These solutions are based on the latest NCERT textbooks. This chapter is an important part of CBSE 9th Social Science syllabus and students are advised to learn these solutions thoroughly.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History (PDF) All Chapters: Social Science

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History: Chapter 5 - Pastoralists in the Modern World (Social Science):

Question 1. Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?

Answer 1:

Nomads are people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living. These people involved in animal husbandry so they need to move in search of pastures for their animals. When pasture in one place over then they move to another for fresh pastures.

Environmentalists and economists have increasingly come to recognise that pastoral nomadism is a form of life that is perfectly suited to many hilly and dry regions of the world. These people also set up a relationship with farmers on the way, so that the herds could graze in harvested fields and manure the soil. 

Question 2. Discuss why the colonial government in India brought in the following laws. In each case, explain how the law changed the lives of pastoralists:

- Waste Land rules

- Forest Acts

- Criminal Tribes Act

- Grazing Tax

Answer 2:

- Waste Land rules

From the mid of 19th century, Waste Land Rules were enacted in various parts of the country. By these Rules uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals. These individuals were granted various concessions and encouraged to settle these lands. Some of them were made headmen of villages in the newly cleared areas. 

In most areas the lands taken over were grazing tracts used regularly by pastoralists. So expansion of cultivation inevitably meant the decline of pastures and a problem for pastoralists.

- Forest Acts

By the mid-nineteenth century, various Forest Acts were also being enacted in different provinces. Through these Acts, some forests which produced commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal were declared ‘Reserved’.  No pastoralist was allowed access to these forests.

These Forest Acts changed the lives of pastoralists. They were now prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle. Even in the areas, they were allowed entry, their movements were regulated. They needed a permit for entry. The timing of their entry and departure was specified, and the number of days they could spend in the forest Source was limited. Pastoralists could no longer remain in an area even if forage was available, the grass was succulent and the undergrowth in the forest was ample. 

- Criminal Tribes Act

By this Act many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes. They were stated to be criminal by nature and birth. Once this Act came into force, these communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements. They were not allowed to move out without a permit. The village police kept a continuous watch on them.

- Grazing Tax

To expand its revenue income, the colonial government looked for every possible source of taxation. So, tax was imposed on land, on canal water, on salt, on trade goods, and even on animals. Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. In most pastoral tracts of India, grazing tax was introduced in the mid-nineteenth century. The tax per head of cattle went up rapidly and the system of the collection was made increasingly efficient

Question 3. Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.

Answer 3:

In the late nineteenth century, European imperial powers scrambled for territorial possessions in Africa, slicing up the region into different colonies. 

In 1885, Maasailand was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika. Subsequently, the best grazing lands were gradually taken over for white settlement and the Maasai were pushed into a small area in south Kenya and north Tanzania. The Maasai lost about 60 per cent of their pre-colonial lands. They were confined to an arid zone with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures.

Question 4. There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.

Answer 4:

In both cases, new laws and new borders affected pastoral communities. 

New Laws:

In India, various Forest Acts were also being enacted in different provinces. Through these Acts,  some forests which produced commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal were declared ‘Reserved’. No pastoralist was allowed access to these forests. Other forests were classified as ‘Protected’. In these, some customary grazing rights of pastoralists were granted but their movements were severely restricted. 

Similarly, in Africa, Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves; they could neither hunt animals nor graze their herds in these areas. 

New Borders: 

After 1947, the camel and sheep herding Raikas, for instance, could no longer move into Sindh and graze their camels on the banks of the Indus, as they had done earlier. The new political boundaries between India and Pakistan stopped their movement. 

Similarly, in 1885, Maasailand was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika. Subsequently, the best grazing lands were gradually taken over for white settlement and the Maasai were pushed into a small area in south Kenya and north Tanzania. The Maasai lost about 60 per cent of their pre-colonial lands. They were confined to an arid zone with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures.

CBSE Class 9 Syllabus 2020-2021: Download in PDF

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