Rivers play a very important role in a nation in every aspect. It provides irrigation in agricultural lands, electricity, water, cheap transportation and livelihood to the people who are involved in tourism, fisheries etc. Rivers are considered sacred as per the Hindu mythology. There are three main watersheds out of which India’s major rivers are originated: -
i. The Himalaya and the Karakoram range
ii. Vindhya and Satpura ranges and Chotanagpur plateau in central India
iii. Sahyadri or Western Ghats in western India
In Himalaya, Himalayan glaciers contribute three major river basins namely: -
a. Indus: - It is comprised of 3500 glaciers.
b. Brahmaputra: - It contains 1000 glaciers.
c. Ganga: - It comes into existence with the melting of 660 glaciers.
Ganges river system: - There are following major rivers under this system.
i. Ganga: - Starting Gangotri Glacier and drains into Bangladesh.
ii. Chambal: - It flows through Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and merges into Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh.
iii. Betwa: - It originates from Vindhya range of Madhya Pradesh and a tributary river of Yamuna.
iv. Yamuna: - It originates from Yamunotri glaciers from the uppermost region of the Lower Himalayas and the second largest tributary river of River Ganga.
v. Gomti: - It originates from Fulhaar Jheel, Pilibhit,Uttar Pradesh and joins Ganga river in Varansi, Uttar Pradesh.
vi. Ghagra: - It originates from Tibetan plateu near lake mansarovar and joins Sharda River at Bramhghat in India.
vii. Son River: - It originates from Amarkantak in Madhya Prdaesh and covers UP, Jharkhand, Uttrakhand and UP.Largest of the southern tributary river of Ganga.
viii. Gandak River: - It is originated in Nepal.
ix. Kosi River: - It initiates from Nepal near Indo-Tibetan Border. The Sun Koshi's tributaries from east to west are Dudh Koshi, Bhote Koshi, Tamba Koshi and Indravati Koshi.
x. Brahmaputra : - It proliferates from the Chemayungdung glacier of Himalaya ranges and falls into Bay of Bengal via passing through Tibet, Arunachal Pradesh,Assam and Bangladesh.
Indus River System: - There are following rivers contributing to this system and mot of the river flow through the Pakistan as per the regulation of Indus water treaty 1960.The Indus is 3200 kilometers long river.
5 Fact About Indus River
i. Indus: - It originates from the Kailash range of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet. It flows from Ladakh region of Jammu & Kashmir to Gilgit-Baltistan and Punjab of Pakistan and finally merges into the Arabian Sea.
ii. Chenab River: - It forms in the upper Himalayas in the lahaul and spiti district of Himachal Pradesh and flows through Jammu region of J & K state into the plains of Punjab state of Pakistan.
iii. Jhelum : - It originates from Verinag Spring.It is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab, Pakistan that passes through the Jhelum District.
iv. Ravi River: - It proliferates from the Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh and it is one of the five river of Punjab district.
v. Sutlej River: - It originates from the lake rakshastal.It is the easternmost treaty tributary of the Indus River.It is also known as ‘Satadree’.
vi. Beas River: - It’s source of flow exists in Himachal Pradesh, India from Beas Kund.Its total length is 470 kilometers.
vii. Shyok River: - It originates from rimo glacier of Siachin Glacier and flows from ladakh, India to Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan covering a distance of 550 Km.
viii. Zanskar River: - It is a north flowing tributary of Indus river near nimmu in Ladakh.