Shahid Khudiram Bose Biography: Birth, Family, Revolutionary Activities, Legacy and Execution
Shahid Khudiram Bose was the youngest revolutionary freedom fighter who opposed British Raj in India. He was involved in the Muzaffarpur conspiracy and was executed on August 11, 1908, at the age of 18 years. His fellow, Prafulla Chaki, another freedom fighter, committed suicide before his arrest. The two of them tried to assassinate a British judge, Douglas Kingsford. Today is the 112 death anniversary of Khudiram Bose.
Khudiram Bose: Birth, Early Life, Family and Education
Shahid Khudiram Bose was born on December 3, 1889, in Mohobani, Bengal to Trailokyanath Bose and Lakshmipriya Devi. His father was a Tehsildar in the Nerajol.
Khudiram was the fourth child of his parents. Before his birth, two sons were born to his parents, but both of them died prematurely. At that time, a custom was prevalent in his culture where a newborn was symbolically sold to his eldest sister in exchange of three handfuls of grains. This custom was known as Khud and prevented the newborn from dying prematurely. The name Khudiram is after the cultural custom 'Khud'.
At the age of 6, Khudiram lost his mother and at the age of seven, his father died. His elder sister, Aparupa Roy brought him up along with her husband Amritlal Roy. He attended Hamilton High School in Tamluk.
Khudiram Bose: Revolutionary Activities
In the year 1902 and 1903, Sri Aurobindo and Sister Nivedita gave a series of public lectures and held various private sessions with the existing revolutionary groups for India's freedom. At that time, Khudiram was an active participant in the discussions. Later on, he joined Anushilan Samiti and became a volunteer at the age of 15. He was arrested for distributing pamphlets against the British Raj in India.
In 1907, Barindra Kumar Ghosh arranged for his associate Hemchandra Kanungo to learn bomb-making techniques in Paris from a Russian revolutionary in exile, Nicholas Safranski.
Upon returning to Bengal, Hemchandra and Barindra Kumar collaborated and chose Douglas Kingsford as their target. The target was the Chief Magistrate of the Presidency Court of Alipore and had overseen the trials of Bhupendranath Dutta and other editors of Jugantar, sentencing them to rigorous imprisonment. He becomes infamous for passing harsh and cruel sentences on young revolutionaries.
Hemchandra constructed a book bomb to kill Kingsford. The bomb was packed into a hollow section of Herbert Broom's Commentaries on the Common Law and delivered wrapped in a brown paper to Kingsford's house by Paresh Mallick, a young revolutionary. Kingsford kept the package in his shelf to examine later. In 1908, Kingsford was promoted to the post of District Judge and was transferred by the government to Bihar. His furniture went with him along with the book bomb.
Anushilan Samiti continued in their attempt to kill Kingsford. For this purpose, a two-man team visited Muzaffarpur which included Prafulla Chaki. Prafulla Chaki returned with Khudiram Bose ad a bomb provided to him by Hemchandra.
The Calcutta police became aware of the conspiracy against Kingsford. Four men were assigned to guard the magistrate's house. The two revolutionaries successfully hid their identities and the CID officer returned from Calcutta with a clearance letter from Superintendent of Muzaffarpur that the two revolutionaries have not arrived.
On April 29, Khudirma and Prafulla pretended to be schoolboys and surveyed the park in Muzaffarpur opposite to the British Club before executing their plan. The park was frequently visited by Kingsford.
On the D-day, Kingsford and his wife were playing with the wife and daughter of a British Barrister, Pringle Kennedy. The four of them decided to head back home around 8:30 pm in the identical carriages. As soon as the carriage reached the eastern gate of the European Club, the duo (Khudiram and Prafulla) ran towards it and threw the bomb. The daughter-mother duo died within two days while Kingsford and his wife survived.
After the attack, Khudiram and Prafulla managed to escape. the whole town was aware of the incident and armed policemen were stationed on all rail routes to keep an eye on every passenger. Khudiram, after walking 25 miles, reached a station called Waini. He asked for a glass of water at the tea stall and two constables-- Fateh Singh and Sheo Pershad Singh-- suspected something upon seeing Khudiram's exhausted appearance. Their suspicion rose after a couple of questions and Khudiram was then detained by the constables. 37 rounds of ammunition, Rs 30 cash, railway map and a page of the rail timetable were found with him.
Prafulla travelled for long and was recognised by a civil, Trigunacharan Ghosh, who decided to save Prafulla's life. He also arranged a ticket for him to Kolkata. He boarded a train from Samastipur and was on his way to Howrah. Nandalal Bannerjee, a sub-inspector, stuck in a conversation with him and realised that he could be another revolutionary. Prafulla got down to drink water and Bannerjee sent a Telegram to Muzaffarpur Police station about him. He tried to arrest him at Mokamghat station but Prafulla shot himself in the mouth with his revolver.
On May 1, Khudiram was handcuffed and was presented in front of the magistrate. He took full responsibility for the assassination. After he finished, the dead body of Prafulla arrived at Muzaffarpur. Khudiram identified him and gave the required details.
Khudiram Bose: Execution
Khudiram was the only person alive in the two-man team conspiracy. It was speculated that Khudiram Bose would be spared but on a historical date, the British Judges confirmed his execution. On August 11, Khudiram Bose was hanged to death.
Khudiram Bose: Legacy
1- In 1965, Khudiram Bose Central College was established in Kolkata, West Bengal and offers undergraduate courses in arts and commerce. The college is affiliated to the University of Calcutta.
2- A metro station near Garia in Kolkata is named after him-- Shahid Khudiram Station.
3- Shahid Khudiram Bose Hospital-- a hospital is named after him on BT Road near Municipality Park.
4- The Muzaffarpur Jail, where he was executed on August 11, 1908, was renamed to Khudiram Bose Memorial Central Jail.
5- Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan also known as Alipore Campus is established and offers postgraduate courses and is affiliated to University of Calcutta.
6- Khudiram Anushilan Kendra is located adjacent to the Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Indore Stadium in Kolkata.
7- Khudiram Bose Pusa railway station-- a two platform station in Samastipur district, Bihar.
8- Shaheed Khudiram College at Kamakhyaguri, Alipurduar, West Bengal.
Khudiram Bose: Films
'Main Khudiram Bose Hun', represented the journey of Khudiram Bose.