Jagran Josh Logo
  1. Home
  2. |  
  3. Civil Services|  

IAS Prelims Exam : Environment and Ecology Questions : Environmental Issues

Jun 2, 2016 17:27 IST

    In UPSC IAS Prelims Exam, the subject Environment and Ecology considered as the one of the most important sections among all the subjects of UPSC IAS Exam syllabus. The UPSC IAS aspirants required to prepare this subject very well because of growing importance of this subject at global level. So, here we have created Multiple Choice Questions of Environment and Ecology based on the NIOS Study Material for UPSC IAS Prelims Exam Preparation.



    1.Which of the following is on the list of Global Environmental issues?

    a.    green house effect and global warming

    b.    biodiversity loss

    c.    desertification

    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    The developmental discrepancies in different regions of the world pose a serious threat to our common global environment. Consequently, we are confronted with complex environmental issues deserving attention. The important global environmental issues are:
    •    green house effect and global warming
    •    biodiversity loss
    •    desertification
    •    depletion of ozone layer
    •    acid rain
    •    oil spills
    •    dumping of hazardous wastes

    2.Consider the following statements regarding Green House Effect and Global Warming:

    I.The temperature surrounding the earth has been rising during the recent past, is due to the ‘green house effect’.

    II.A green house is a glass chamber in which plants are grown to provide them warmth by trapping sun light.

    III.The phenomenon of heat build up inside a glass chamber from the absorption of solar radiation is called green house effect.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a.Only I

    b.I and II

    c.II and III

    d.All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    The temperature surrounding the earth has been rising during the recent past, is due to the ‘green house effect’. A green house is a glass chamber in which plants are grown to provide them warmth by trapping sun light. Sunlight (a form of energy) passes through the glass and it gets absorbed inside releasing heat radiations unlike sunlight, heat radiation cannot escape through glass the heat generated there from, cannot escape out of the glass chamber. Thus, even on a cold winter day, the inside of a green house can become quite warm to support plant growth. The phenomenon of heat build up inside a glass chamber from the absorption of solar radiation is called green house effect.

    3.With reference to the sources and causes of Greenhouse Gases which of the following is correctly matched?

     

    Gas

    Sources and Causes

    a

    Carbon dioxide (CO­­2)

    Refrigeration,  solvents,  insulation  foams,  aero  propellants, industrial and commercial uses

    b

    Chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs)

    Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation

    c

    Methane (CH4)

    Growing paddy, excreta of cattle and other livestock, termites, burning of fossil fuel, wood, landfills etc.

    d

    Nitrogen oxides (N2O)

    Refrigeration,  solvents, ,  aero  propellants,  insulation  foams, industrial and commercial uses

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    Greenhouse Gases and their sources and causes:
    Carbon dioxide (CO¬¬2): Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation
    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): Refrigeration, solvents, insulation foams, aero propellants, industrial and commercial uses.
    Methane (CH4): Growing paddy, excreta of cattle and other livestock, termites, burning of fossil fuel, wood, landfills etc.
    Nitrogen oxides (N2O): Burning of fossil fuels, fertilizers; burning of wood and crop residue.

    4.Consider the following statements regarding the suggested measures to minimize global warming by reducing emission of green house gases especially carbon dioxides:

    I.Increased fuel efficiency of power plants and vehicles

    II.Development/implementation of solar energy/non-fossil fuel alternatives

    III.Halting deforestation

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a.Only I

    b.I and II

    c.II and III

    d.All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Every individual must take immediate steps to minimize global warming by reducing emission of green house gases especially carbon dioxides. Following steps would be useful in reducing emission/release of green house gases into the atmosphere:
    •    Increased fuel efficiency of power plants and vehicles
    •    Development/implementation of solar energy/non-fossil fuel alternatives
    •    Halting deforestation
    •    Supporting and undertaking tree-planting (afforestation)
    •    Reduce air-pollution

    5.Consider the following statements regarding Biodiversity:

    I.Biodiversity could be classified as the Species biodiversity, Genetic biodiversity and Ecosystem biodiversity.

    II.There are more than 1000 species in India of which several are confined to India (endemic).

    III.Ecosystem biodiversity includes various biological zones, like lake, desert, coast, estuaries, wetlands, mangroves, coralreefs etc.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a.Only I

    b.I and II

    c.I and III

    d.All of the above

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    Biodiversity could be classified as:
    Species biodiversity: It includes total number of different taxonomical or biological species. There are more than 200000 species in India of which several are confined to India (endemic).
    Genetic biodiversity: It includes land traces; horticultural varieties; cultivars, ecotypes (related types differing due to difference in the ecological condition); all within a biological species.
    Ecosystem biodiversity: It includes various biological zones, like lake, desert, coast, estuaries, wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs etc.

    6.Consider the following statements regarding the reasons for biodiversity loss:

    I. Introduction of foreign species

    II.Environmental degradation

    III.Loss of habitat

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a.Only I

    b.I and II

    c.II and III

    d.All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Rapid decline of biodiversity is a result of various causes and few of the followings are:
    Loss of Habitat: Due to the growing human population, wetlands are being made dry through landfills, as the demand for land increases. Natural forests are cleared for industry, agriculture, dams, habitation, recreational sports, etc. As a consequence- every plant and animal species occupying that ecosystem is temporarily or permanently affected. So are the migrating birds or other animals visiting that habitat and occupying the ecosystem.
    Introduction of foreign species: With growing volume of international travel accidental introduction of species into a new or foreign area has become easier. There are many species which have invaded new areas to which they were introduced unintentionally. Many of the new species introduced into new regions thrive at the expense of native species. For example: Parthenium, Argemone and Lantana are the common weeds of foreign origin in our country.
    Environmental degradation: A vast array of factors causing environmental degradation may result in the loss of biodiversity. Some of these factors are: global warming, increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, nuclear radiation; UV-exposure; oil spills, etc.

    7.Consider the following statements regarding the Ozone layer and its formation:

    I.The upper part of the earth’s atmosphere, between 10 and 50 km above the earth surface called stratosphere contains athin layer of ozone.

    II.This ozone layer serves as a natural filter for blocking deadly incoming uv-radiation from the sun.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a.Only I

    b.Only II

    c.Both I and II

    d.Neither I nor II

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    Ozone (O3) is a highly reactive molecule containing three oxygen atoms. The upper part of the earth’s atmosphere, between 10 and 50 km above the earth surface called stratosphere contains a thin layer of ozone. This ozone layer serves as a natural filter for blocking deadly incoming ultra-violet radiation from the sun.

    8.With reference to the cause of ozone layer depletion which of the following statement is incorrect?

    a.A number of naturally occurring substances like Hydrogen oxide (HOx), Methane (CH4), Hydrogen gas (H2), Nitrogen oxides (NOx) causes ozone layer depletion.

    b.Chlorine monoxide (ClO); during volcanic eruptions, significant amount of chlorine may be released in the stratosphere which causes ozone layer depletion.

    c.Tiny particulate matter in the stratosphere, known as stratospheric aerosols, the only matter protect ozone layer depletion.

    d.Any event, which release chlorine atoms into the atmospheric, can cause severe ozone destruction, because chlorine atoms in the stratosphere can destroy ozone very efficiently.

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    Ozone (O3) layer can be destroyed both by natural and man-made causes-

    Natural causes: A number of naturally occurring substances like Hydrogen oxide (HOx), Methane (CH4), Hydrogen gas (H2), Nitrogen oxides (NOx).Chlorine monoxide (ClO); during volcanic eruptions, significant amount of chlorine may be released in the stratosphere which causes ozone layer depletion. Tiny particulate matter in the stratosphere, known as stratospheric aerosols, may also lead to ozone destruction.

    Human activity related causes: Any event, which release chlorine atoms into the atmospheric, can cause severe ozone destruction, because chlorine atoms in the stratosphere can destroy ozone very efficiently. Most damaging among such agents are human made chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which is widely used as refrigerants and to pressurize sprays cans

    9.Which of the following is not one of the harmful effects of ozone layer depletion on Human beings?

    a.Increase susceptibility of skin-cancer

    b.Repress growth

    c.Damage cornea

    d.Cause retinal diseases

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    The harmful effects of ozone layer depletion on Human beings are: Increase susceptibility of skin-cancer, Increase cataract, Damage DNA, Damage cornea, Cause retinal diseases, Suppers human immune systems etc. Repress growth is one of the harmful effects of ozone layer depletion on plants.

    10.Consider the following statements regarding the acid rain:

    I.Acid rain refers to any precipitation (rain, fog, mist, snow) that is more acidic than normal.

    II.Acid rain is caused by atmospheric pollution from acidic gases such as sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen emitted from burning of fossil fuels.

    III.Acid rain is formed when the air that contains acidic gases emitted mostly from power plants industries and automobiles, combines with the rain drops.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

    a.Only I

    b.I and II

    c.II and III

    d.All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Acid rain refers to any precipitation (rain, fog, mist, snow) that is more acidic than normal. Acid rain is caused by atmospheric pollution from acidic gases such as sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen emitted from burning of fossil fuels.  Acid rain is formed when the air that contains acidic gases emitted mostly from power plants industries and automobiles, combines with the rain drops. The emission of sulphur dioxide oxide and of oxides nitrogen into the atmosphere can lead to the formation of acid rain.

    Click here for IAS Prelims: GS Environment and Ecology: Study Material

    Click here for any query and further discussion on various subjects

    DISCLAIMER: JPL and its affiliates shall have no liability for any views, thoughts and comments expressed on this article.

    Latest Videos

    Register to get FREE updates

      All Fields Mandatory
    • (Ex:9123456789)
    • Please Select Your Interest
    • Please specify

    • ajax-loader
    • A verifcation code has been sent to
      your mobile number

      Please enter the verification code below

    Newsletter Signup
    Follow us on
    This website uses cookie or similar technologies, to enhance your browsing experience and provide personalised recommendations. By continuing to use our website, you agree to our Privacy Policy and Cookie Policy. OK
    X

    Register to view Complete PDF