In this article, we have provided Class 8th NCERT Solutions for Chapter 3 from the Economics Textbook. The NCERT solutions of this chapter have been provided after a detailed analysis of the latest syllabus issued by CBSE. Students of Class 9th can study the answers provided here to score well in their school exams. Before going through the answers to these questions, students are first advised to read Chapter 2 of (Class 9 Social Science - Economics) NCERT textbook.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics - Chapter 3
Ques: Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India.
Answer: A common method used to measure poverty is based on income or consumption levels. A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given “minimum level” necessary to fulfill basic needs. While determining the poverty line in India, a minimum level of food requirement, clothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational and medical requirement, etc. are determined for subsistence. These physical quantities are multiplied by their prices in rupees. The resent formula for food requirements while estimating the poverty line is based on the desired calorie requirement.
Ques: Do you think that the present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate?
Answer: I don’t think that the present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate because each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms. For example, a person not having a car in the United States may be considered poor. In India, owning a car is still considered a luxury.
Ques: Describe poverty trends in India since 1973.
Answer: There is a substantial decline in poverty ratios in India from about 55 percent in 1973 to 36 percent in 1993. The proportion of people below the poverty line further came down to about 26 percent in 2000. If the trend continues, people below the poverty line may come down to less than 20 percent in the next few years. Although the percentage of people living under poverty declined in the earlier two decades (1973– 1993), the number of poor remained stable at around 320 million for a fairly long period. The latest estimates indicate a significant reduction in the number of poor to about 260 million.
Ques: Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India.
Answer: There were a number of causes for the widespread poverty in India. One historical reason is the low level of economic development under the British colonial administration. The low rate of growth persisted until the nineteen-eighties. This resulted in fewer job opportunities and a low growth rate of incomes. This was accompanied by a high growth rate of the population. The two combined to make the growth rate of per capita income very low. Another feature of high poverty rates has been the huge income inequalities. One of the major reasons for this is the unequal distribution of land and other resources. Despite many policies, we have not been able to tackle the issue in a meaningful manner.
Ques: Identify the social and economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India.
Answer: Social groups, which are most vulnerable to poverty, are scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households. Similarly, among the economic groups, the most vulnerable groups are the rural agricultural labour households and urban casual labour households.
Ques: Describe global poverty trends.
Answer: The proportion of people in developing countries living in extreme economic poverty— defined by the World Bank as living on less than $1 per day—has fallen from 28 percent in 1990 to 21 per cent in 2001. Although there has been a substantial reduction in global poverty, it is marked with great regional differences. Poverty declined substantially in China and Southeast Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investments in human resource development. The number of poor people in China has come down from 606 million in 1981 to 212 million in 2001. In the countries of South Asia (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan) the decline has not been as rapid. Despite a decline in the percentage of the poor, the number of poor has declined marginally from 475 million in 1981 to 428 million in 2001. Because of different poverty line definition, poverty in India is also shown higher than the national estimates. In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty, in fact, rose from 41 per cent in 1981 to 46 per cent in 2001 (see graph 3.3). In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same. Poverty has also resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia, where officially it was nonexistent earlier. The proportion of people living under poverty in different countries is defined by the international poverty line (means population below $1 a day).
Ques: Describe the current government strategy of poverty alleviation.
Answer: The current anti-poverty strategy of the government is based broadly on two planks
(1) promotion of economic growth
(2) targeted anti-poverty programmes.
Ques: What do you understand by human poverty?
Answer: Many scholars advocate that we must broaden the concept of poverty into human poverty. A large number of people may have been able to feed themselves. But they do not have education or shelter or health care or job security or self-confidence. They are not free from caste and gender discrimination. The practice of child labour is still common.
Ques: Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India.
Answer: A common method used to measure poverty is based on income or consumption levels. A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given “minimum level” necessary to fulfill basic needs.
Ques: Who are the poorest of the poor?
Answer: Women, elderly people, and female infants are systematically denied equal access to resources available to the family. Therefore women, children (especially the girl child), and old people are the poorest of the poor.
Ques: What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005?
Answer: The National Rural Employment Act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts. Later, the scheme will be extended to 600 districts. One-third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for women. The central government will also establish National Employment Guarantee Funds. Similarly state governments will establish State Employment Guarantee Funds for implementation of the scheme.