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UPSC IAS Prelims Exam : Geography- MCQs Set 17

For IAS Prelim Exam aspirants, to score high in every subject is much important. So the General Studies Paper of Geography is one of such subject where an aspirant score high unless he pratice more and more number of questions. Here we have put another set of MCQs of Geography for UPSC Prelims Exam.

Dec 8, 2015 16:05 IST
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1. Consider the following statements about troposphere

1. It contains approximately 99% of atmosphere’s water vapour and aerosols.
2. It is deeper in the tropics upto 12 miles and shallower near the polar regions, at 4.3 miles in summer and indistinct in winter.
3. Tropopause is the region of temperature inversion.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) 1 and 3
(d) All of these

Ans: (d)

Explanation:
The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth’s atmosphere. It contains approximately 80% of the atmosphere’s mass and 99% of its water vapour and aerosols. The border between the troposphere and stratosphere, called the tropopause, is a temperature inversion region.

2. consider the following statements about Epeirogenic movement
1. These are horizontal movements caused by tangential forces.
2. They cause large scale upliftment, subsidence or submergence and emergence of the land areas.
3. These movements are rather quick and widespread and fracturing and folding is produced in the rock.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) 1 and 3
(d) All of these

Ans: (b)

Explanation:
Epeirogenic movements are vertical movements, caused by radial forces and characterised by slow, widespread, large scale upliftment, subsidence or submergence and emergence of land areas. Orogenic movements are horizontal movements caused by tangential forces and involve intense folding, thrusting, faulting and uplift of narrow belts.

3. At night, the winds generally die out. This is because

(a) Convection during daytime causes mixing of air and therefore, spreads up the wind near the surface.
(b) Temperature inversion prevents any exchange of air from the upper layer to the lower layer
(c) The coriolis deflection id greater during daytime
(d) The conditions are quite during night  time

Ans: (b)

Explanation:
Temperature inversion is an increase in temperature with height. During the temperature inversion the normal vertical temperature gradient is inverted such that the air is colder near the surface of the earth. The cold air is near the surface will be stable and prevents any upward and lateral movement. It suppresses the convection by acting as a cap.

4. consider the following pressure conditions:

1. The equatorial low pressure belt extends well into the Southern hemisphere.
2. The sub-tropical high pressure systems of the Southern hemisphere are formed only over the oceans.
3. Low pressure is well developed over Australia.

In which of the following months, above conditions are seen?

(a) January
(b) March
(c) July
(d) September

Ans: (a)

Explanation:
During the month of January, the equatorial low pressure belt extends well into the southern hemisphere, where it is the summer season. In the northern hemisphere, the low temperatures produce strong high pressure systems of north. The sub-tropical high pressure systems of the southern hemisphere are formed only over the oceans.

5. Which of the following statements about the trade winds are not true?

(a) Trade winds are also called as easterlies
(b) Trade winds blow from sub-tropical high pressure areas towards equatorial low pressure areas
(c) Because of the coriolis effect the trade winds are deflected in anti-clockwise directions to become north-East trades  in the northern hemisphere and in clockwise to become south-east trades in the southern hemisphere
(d) Trade winds are descending and stable. Hence, they are dry in the place of origin.

Ans: (c)

Explanation:
Because of the coriolis effects the trade winds are deflected in clockwise direction or to the right to become NE trades in the Northern hemisphere and anti-clockwise or to the left to become SE trades in the Southern hemisphere. Trade winds blowing from Sub-tropical High Pressure areas towards Equatorial Low Pressure areas are also called as Easterlies.

6. Consider the following statements about humidity

1. Absolute humidity represents the actual amount of moisture present in the air. Absolute humidity remains constant with change in temperature.
2. Relative humidity is the ratio between the amount of moisture, which the air can hold at a given temperature, and the amount it actually holds. Relative humidity increases with increase in temperature, while it decreases with decrease in temperature.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are true?
(a) Only
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans: (d)
Explanation:
Absolute humidity is ratio between the weight of vapour per unit volume of air expressed as gram per cubic metre of air. Relative humidity is the ratio between the amount of moisture, which the air can hold at a given temperature, and the amount it actually holds.

7. Consider the following statements regarding ‘Lithification’

1. It is the cementation, compaction and hardening of sediments into sedimentary rocks.
2. Presence of remains of plants and animals between layers of sediments.
3. These are called secondary rocks.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
(a) Only 1
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans: (d)
Explanation:
Lithification is the cementation, compaction and hardening of sediments into sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks are derived by denudation of other pre-existing primary or parent rocks.

8. Which of the following weather conditions are associated with cold front?

1. The cold air mass is advancing and undercutting the warm air mass.
2. The warm air mass is advancing and over-riding the cold air mass.
3. Rapid ascent of warm moist air at the front causes rapid cooling and condensation.
4. Development of nimbus clouds.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 3
(b) 2 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4
(d) 2, 3 and 4

Ans: (a)

Explanation:
In a cold front, the cold air mass will be advancing and under cutting the warm air. The gradient of the cold front is usually much steeper than that of the warm front and the rapid ascent of warm moist air at the front causes rapid cooling, condensation and the development of cumulonimbus clouds. In a warm front, the warm air mass will be advancing and overriding the cold air.

9. Consider the following characteristics of Laterite soil

1. These soils are formed under conditions of high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods.
2. Residual soils formed by leaching in areas of heavy rain.
3. It is of coarse texture, soft and friable.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a)    Only 1
(b)    1 and 2
(c)    2 and 3
(d)    All of these

Ans: (d)

Explanation:
These soils are formed under conditions of high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods. Thus its formation takes place strictly under monsoon conditions. Residual soils formed by leaching in areas of heavy rains. Laterite soils are found in elevated areas which receive very high rainfall.

10. Which of the following conditions occur during an El-Nino?

1. Trade winds are weakened in the eastern pacific.
2. Up-welling across the coast of Peru is suppressed and warm surface water remains across the coast.
3. Air pressure rises over large areas of the South-East Pacific, while pressure drops over western Pacific.
4. Release of H2S in the water off the coast of Peru.

Select the correct answer using the codes gives below:

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 1, 2 and 4
(d) All of these

Ans: (c)

Explanation:
The ITCZ’s normal seasonal migration is from 10 degree N latitude in August to 3 degree N in February. But during El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events it may move South of the equator in Eastern Pacific. This shift causes the weakening of the trade winds. This causes the warm surface waters remain off the South and Central American coast for an entire year or longer.

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