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UPSC IAS Prelims Exam: Physical Geography of India NCERT Questions: Soil

May 6, 2016 15:02 IST

    UPSC Civil Services (IAS) Exam 2016 Notification is just released by Union Public Service Commission and the candidates are required to understand the requirement of Civil Services Prelims Examination on order to qualify the IAS Prelim Exam. It requires a special focus on the IAS Exam Preparation and endless practice of the Subject Questions and Model Test Papers.

    Geography is one of the important components of the IAS Syllabus which covers the major share of the IAS Prelims Questions. The General Studies Paper I of Civil Services IAS Prelims Exam consist of Geography Questions ranges from 15 to 25 every year. So, the Civil Services aspirants have to do Preparation of GS Geography in a manner so, that they can score better in IAS Prelims Exam.

    Here, we have provided such practice questions of Physical Geography which will help aspirants to check their level of Preparation of IAS Prelims Exam 2016.

    1. Consider the following statements

    1. Climate and human activities influence soil formation to large extent.
    2. Soil is composed air along with humus.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2
    Answer: c

    Explanation: The major factors affecting the formation of soil are relief, parent material, climate, vegetation and other life-forms and time. Besides these, human activities also influence it to a large extent. Components of the soil are mineral particles, humus, water and air. The actual amount of each of these depends upon the type of soil.

    2. Consider the following statements

    1. Alluvial are the most widespread soil in India.
    2. Alluvial soils though found in Northern plains and river valleys, they extend into Gujarat plains through narrow corridor in Rajasthan.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation: Alluvial soils are widespread in the northern plains and the river valleys. These soils cover about 40 per cent of the total area of the country. They are depositional soils, transported and deposited by rivers and streams. Through a narrow corridor in Rajasthan, they extend into the plains of Gujarat. In the Peninsular region, they are found in deltas of the east coast and in the river valleys.

    3. With reference to alluvial soil, which of the following is/are true?

    1. In Ganga plain sand content decreases from the west to east.
    2. Calcareous concretions called Kankars are found only in older alluvium.
    3. Alluvial soils are generally rich in potash, nitrogen but poor in phosphorous.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: a

    Explanation: Alluvial soils are generally rich in potash but poor in phosphorous. Khadar is the new alluvium and is deposited by floods annually, which enriches the soil by depositing fine silts. Bhangar represents a system of older alluvium, deposited away from the flood plains. Both the Khadar and Bhangar soils contain calcareous concretions (Kankars). The sand content decreases from the west to east.

    4. With reference to black soil, which of the following is/are true?

    1. Black soil is impermeable.
    2. Black soil absorbs moisture slowly and slowly loses moisture.
    3. Black soils are self ploughing.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:  Black soils are also known as the ‘Regur Soil’ or the ‘Black Cotton Soil’. The
    black soils are generally clayey, deep and impermeable. They swell and become sticky when wet and shrink when dried. So, during the dry season, these soils develop wide cracks. Thus, there occurs a kind of ‘self ploughing’. Because of this character of slow absorption and loss of moisture, the black soil retains the moisture for a very long time, which helps the crops, especially; the rain fed ones, to sustain even during the dry season.

    5. Black soil is found very deep in which of the following areas?

    1. North eastern part of Deccan plateau
    2. Upper reaches of Godavari
    3. Upper reaches of Krishna

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: b

    Explanation: Black soil covers most of the Deccan Plateau which includes parts of Maharashtra, Madhya
    Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Tamil Nadu. In the upper reaches of the Godavari and the Krishna, and the north western part of the Deccan Plateau, the black soil is very deep.

    6. Black soil is rich in which of the following?

    1. Iron
    2. Organic matter
    3. Nitrogen

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: a

    Explanation: The black soils are rich in lime, iron, magnesia and alumina. They also contain potash. But they lack in phosphorous, nitrogen and organic matter. The colour of the soil ranges from deep black to grey.

    7. Consider the following statements regarding red and yellow soils

    1. It develops on crystalline metamorphic sedimentary rocks.
    2. Reddish colour of the rocks is due to the diffusion of iron in its parent rocks.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: b

    Explanation: Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks. The soil develops a reddish colour due to a wide diffusion of iron in crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks.

    8. Red soil is significantly found in which of the following areas?

    1. Western part of Deccan plateau
    2. Southern parts of middle Ganga plain
    3. Southern part of Deccan plateau

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation: Red soil is found in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern part of the Deccan Plateau. Along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghat, long stretch of area is occupied by red loamy soil. Yellow and red soils are also found in parts of Orissa and Chhattisgarh and in the southern parts of the middle Ganga plain.

    9. Consider the following statements

    1. Both coarse and fine grained red soils are normally infertile.
    2. Red soils are rich in phosphorus but poor in nitrogen and humus.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: d

    Explanation: The fine-grained red and yellow soils are normally fertile, whereas coarse-grained soils found in dry upland areas are poor in fertility. They are generally poor in nitrogen, phosphorous and humus.

    10. Which of the following is/are true about laterite soils?

    1. It develops in region of low temperature and high rainfall.
    2. It is not suitable for cultivation.
    3. It is rich in iron oxide and potash compound.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation: The laterite soils develop in areas with high temperature and high rainfall. These are the result of intense leaching due to tropical rains. With rain, lime and silica are leached away, and soils rich in iron oxide and aluminum compound are left behind. Humus content of the soil is removed fast by bacteria that thrive well in high temperature. These soils are poor in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphate and calcium, while iron oxide and potash are in excess. Hence, laterites are not suitable for cultivation;

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