Several levels of organization are there that build on each other in our body like cells make up tissues, tissues make up organs, organs make up organ systems. The organ system functions according to the particular organ like digestive system; it processes the food, etc. Organism’s survival depends upon the integrated activity of the organs and organ system with that of endocrine and nervous system.
When group of similar cells combine together to form a specific task are known as tissues. The structures that are made up of two or tissues are called Organs which are organized to carry out a particular function. And a group of organs related with functions, forms Organ Systems.
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It is the process of Retrieving or procuring an organ from a living or deceased person known as a Donor. The process of recovering organs is called Harvesting. This organ is transplanted into the Recipient who is in need of that organ.
It is of two types: Live Donation and Deceased or Cadaver Donation.
Live Donation is done by healthy and living person. This is done only in case of liver or kidney as the liver can grow back to normal size and the donor can survive on one kidney where as Deceased or Cadaver organ donation is a donation from a person who has been declared brain dead by the authorised team of doctors at the hospital. Here brain dead means an irreversible loss of consciousness, absence of brain stem reflexes and no spontaneous respiration.
Anyone can become a donor. And at the time of death your medical condition will determine what organs can be donated for transplant or scientific research.
Lungs: It is present on the right and left part of the chest which helps in breathing, absorb oxygen and transfer it through the blood to rest of the body, defend the body from unwanted materials and removes carbon dioxide from the blood. A person suffering from severe lung disease like cystic fibrosis, emphysema and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) needs lung transplantation.
Heart: It pumps blood through arteries in your body and then back through the veins. It is also known as the cardiovascular system. Donation of heart is termed as heart transplantation to those who suffers from heart failure as well as when babies are born with heart defects.
Liver: It is the largest organ of our body. It secretes bile juice, helps in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Liver transplant is done in case of liver failure, some inherited liver disease, autoimmune disease, liver cancer, viral infection etc.
Pancreas: is a long and tapering organ which lies behind the stomach and helps in the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. A person suffering from insulin dependent type I diabetes i.e. does not respond to insulin treatment, have kidney disease or related to kidney failure and have severe & frequent hypoglycemia are recommended for Pancreas transplantation.
Kidneys: They filter the blood by eliminating waste products & excess of water from the blood and make urine. So, they are a part of Urinary System. Kidney transplant is recommended for those who have been diagnosed from chronic renal disease or kidney failure.
Small Intestine: It is a soft, coiled elastic tube which is present between the stomach and large intestine and is also a part of the digestive system. A person is recommended for intestine transplant if they are diagnosed with life- threatening intestinal diseases like total parental nutrition or short-gut syndrome, some severe digestive disorders, extensive and unresponsive Crohn’s disease (a long-term condition that causes inflammation of the lining of the digestive system).
Cornea: is the clear, transparent tissue in front of the eye which covers the iris & pupil and help light to enter into the eyes. Transplantation of cornea is the common process to restore the vision, for corneal ulcer, in older people to remove the cloudiness of the cornea etc.
Heart valves: are the tissues that prevent the back flow of blood into the heart. It is transplanted to save the lives of the children born with heart defects and adults with damaged heart valves.
Skin: It is a tissue which protects the body from infection and injury. Skin transplantation is done during severe skin burns, excessive wounding, to reduce scaring and skin pain, skin loss due to skin infection etc.
Tendons: are tissues which attach bones and muscles to each other, help in rebuilding damaged joints. Transplantation of tendons is recommended for those persons who have lost muscle function or due to nerve injury tendons are damaged.
Bones: For artificial joint replacements, due to illness or injury bones are replaced, also helps in reducing pain and improve mobility.
From the above article we will come to know about the various organs and tissues that can be donated to save the lives of the people. Also, we understood about organs, tissues, organ systems, what is organ donation etc.