List of foreign rulers who invaded India, check details here

India was and still lap of luxury. Over the centuries, invaders have entered and repeatedly attacked India for various reasons. Check the list of all foreign rulers who invaded India with this article.
List of foreign invades in India
List of foreign invades in India

India is been a land of wealth and virtues, which later became the reason for the invasion. Foreign rulers, over the centuries, tried to annex and rob the country around 200 times. The list of foreign invaders has Persian Achaemenid king Darius on the first rank, whereas Alexander the Great also could not resist his lure for the land.

The list of famous foreign invaders includes the names of:

The Persian invasion: The Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley occurred from the 6th to 4th centuries BCE, and saw the Achaemenid Persian Empire take control of regions in the northwestern Indian subcontinent that predominantly comprises the territory of modern-day Pakistan. The first of two main invasions were conducted around 535 BCE by the empire's founder, Cyrus the Great,[1] who annexed the regions west of the Indus River that formed the eastern border of the Achaemenid Empire. Following Cyrus' death, Darius the Great I invaded Punjab and Sindh. Xerxes, the son of Darius, continued to attack India but wasn't successful as he was embroiled in a war with the Greeks at the same time. 

Muhammad bin Qasim: Muḥammad ibn al-Qāsim al-Thaqafī was an Arab military commander in service of the Umayyad Caliphate who led the Muslim conquest of Sindh. He was the one behind the establishment of the Islamic province of Sindh, and the takeover of the region from the Sindhi Brahaman Dynasty.  Muhammad ibn al-Qasim was the first Muslim to successfully captured Hindu land, which later marked the beginning of Muslim rule in India. He also served as the Governor of Sindh from 712 until he died in 715.

Mahmud of Ghazni: Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn usually known as Mahmud of Ghazni or Mahmud Ghaznavi was the founder of the Turkic Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 998 to 1030. He invaded and destroyed the richest cities and temple towns, such as Mathura and Somnath, of India seventeen times, and used the wealth to build his capital in Ghazni.

In 1001 Mahmud of Ghazni first invaded modern-day Pakistan and then parts of India. At the time of his death, his kingdom had been transformed into an extensive military empire, which extended from northwestern Iran proper to Punjab in the Indian subcontinent, Khwarazm in Transoxiana, and Makran.

Muhammad Ghori: Muhammad Ghori invaded India in 1175 A.D. After winning Multan and Punjab, he advanced towards Delhi. His empire extended from Herat (Afghanistan) up to Western Bengal, including the region of Khurasan. The brave Rajput chiefs of northern India headed by Prithvi Raj Chauhan crushed him in the First Battle of Terrain in 1191 A.D. He stormed again in 1192 with a vast army of Turkish mounted archers and defeated the Rajputs in the Second Battle of Tarain and executed Chauhan. Later he dropped his idea of invasions in India and continued his expansion in the West.

Timur: Timur later Timūr Gurkānī was a Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire. The first ruler of the Timurid dynasty and the great military leaders belonged to the family of Genghis Khan. He annexed northern India in 1398, attacking the Delhi Sultanate led by Sultan Nasir-Ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq of the Tughlaq dynasty.

Delhi was his biggest victory. Taimur’s legacy is vast, like Central Asia, blossomed under his reign, while other places, such as Baghdad, Damascus, Delhi, and other Arab, Georgian, Persian, and Indian cities were sacked and destroyed and their populations massacred. 

Babur: Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire. He led four expeditions to India but without any significant results. His fifth invasion i.e battle of Panipat marked a change in the political history of India. Babur's victory ensured the beginning of the Mughal Empire and the end of the Delhi Sultanate. The Mughal Empire would go on to rule over the Indian subcontinent before the arrival of the East India Company and the beginning of the British colonization of India.

Nader Shah: The most powerful ruler in Iranian history, Nadar Shah was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. He annexed regions of Ghazni, Kabul, Peshawar, Sindh, and Lahore, and then moved into the Mughal territories. He ruled Northern India, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739. The Mughal ruler Muhammad Shah raised a huge army and faced Nader's forces in the Battle of Karnal on February 13, 1739. His army had easily defeated the Mughals at the Battle of Karnal and crushed the Mughal army, and mercilessly massacred and looted Delhi. Also, he took with him all the valuables of the Mughal treasury, including the famous Peacock Throne and the Kohinoor diamond.

Ahmad Shah Durrani: Popularly known as Ahmad Shah Abdali. He was the founder of the Durrani Empire, modern Afghanistan. He invaded India eight times and defeated the Maratha Empire in the Third Battle of Panipat between 1748 to 1767. Ahmad Shah Durrani succeeded on the throne of Afghanistan and looted valuables and wealth from all nearby regions. After returning to Kandahar in 1757, Durrani decided to return to India and confront the Maratha forces to regain the northwestern part of the subcontinent, after returning to Kandahar in the year 1757.

Alexander the Great: The Indian invasion of Alexander the Great began in 327 BC. After conquering the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, the Macedonian king moved toward Indian subcontinent. As per his plan, he divided his forces, constructed a bridge over the Indus, supplied their troops, and reached the capital city of Taxila.  Later, he advanced into Punjab, where he engaged in the battle against the regional king Porus.

Alexander conquered Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC. Experts say the Battle of the Hydaspes was the most costly battle fought by the Macedonians.In the aftermath, Alexander hearing about the lament of his soldiers, eventually relented, being convinced that it was better to return. 

British East India Company: Then comes the era of British India. The Britishers first came to Surat in India on August 24, 1608, as merchants. However, the expansion in India began with the victory of the Battle of Plassey in 1757. British Company had power almost over all sectors, including military power and administrative functions. The British expansion lasted until 1858 when, after the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, the British Crown assumed direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj.

The foreign invasion of India is of combined importance. While the invasions always resulted in a massacre, and loss of possession and wealth but they somewhere added to the cultural aspects of the country.


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