CBSE 12th Political Science board exam is to be held on 6th March 2020. Students appearing for class 12 Political Science exam must prepare well. The chapter-wise questions are of the book ‘Contemporary World Politics’. These questions are based on the NCERT textbook and the latest CBSE Sample paper of Political Science and can be expected in the CBSE class 12 board exam 2020.
Important Questions and Answers of Chapter 1- (The Cold War Era)
Q1- The Cold War produced an arms race as well as arms control, what were the reasons for both of this development?
Ans- The Cold War produced an arms race as well as arms control, the reason for this development were:
- Cuban Missile Crisis had engaged both the superpowers in the development of nuclear weapons for influencing the world
- Both the superpowers did not want to initiate a war and decided to avoid destruction
- Both the superpowers decided to limit the certain kinds of nuclear and non-nuclear weapons and signed various significant agreements
Q2- Name the two main arenas of the Cold War along with an example of each.
Ans- Arena is the area where the cold war occurred. Those areas were
- North Korea (supported by USSR) Vs South Korea (supported by the USA)
- Northern Vietnam (supported by USSR) Vs Southern Vietnam(supported by the USA)
Q3- Mention any two founder leaders of NAM?
Ans- Sukarno Tito, Jawaharlal Nehru, Nasser and Nkrumah (You can mention any two).
Q4- Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) also known as the Western Alliance?
Ans- The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) was an association of twelve states. All these states were part of western Europe that’s why this association was also called Western Alliance.
Important Questions & Answers of Chapter 2- (The End of Bipolarity)
Q1- Mention the factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR?
Ans- The factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR were:
- Normalizing relations with the West.
- Loosening the administrative system which exempted ordinary people from all the
- To makes Viet System more democratic.
Q2- Explain Shock Therapy? Do you think this was the best way to make a transition from communism to capitalism?
Ans- Shock Therapy was the process that involved the transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system.
This was surely not the best way for the transition from communism to capitalism because:
- Shock Therapy systematically destroyed an old system of social welfare.
- Privatization in Russia led to new disparities. It divided Russia between rich and poor people and created economic inequality.
- Shock Therapy is known to create“the largest garage sale in history”. It led to the virtual disappearance of entire industries.
Q3- Mention the major consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union for countries like India?
Ans- The consequences were:
- The disintegration of the Soviet Union bought cold War to an end along with the ideological disputes
- The idea of liberal democracy emerged as a way of organizing political life
- Military alliances were abolished and there was the demand for world peace and security.
Q4- Name the event in 1989 led to the unification of Germany?
Ans- Collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 led to the unification of Germany.
Important Questions & Answers of Chapter 3- (US Hegemony in World Politics)
Q1-Describe three ways in which US dominance since the Cold War is different from its position as a superpower during the Cold War.
Ans- The three ways are mentioned in the points below:
- At the time of cold war, the US found it difficult to win over the Soviet Union as hard power
- During the Cold War, the Soviet Union provided an alternate model of a socialist economy. But the world economy throughout the Cold War years adapted capitalist economy
- The US became triumphant in the area of soft power
Q2- Mention the objectives of the Iraq invasion by the US.
Ans- The objective of the U.S. going to war with Iraq was the imminent threat of Saddam's weapons of mass destruction and ties to terrorism.
Q3- What is Hegemony?
Ans- The word ‘Hegemony’ stands for an international system. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the rise of one single power, the United States of America.
Q4- Which among the following statements about hegemony is incorrect?
- The word implies the leadership or predominance of one State.
- It was used to denote the predominance of Athens in ancient Greece.
- The country has a hegemonic position will possess unchallenged military power.
- The hegemonic position is fixed. Once a hegemon, always a hegemon.
Ans- The correct answer is ‘D’.
Important Questions & Answers of Chapter 4- (Alternative Centres of Power)
Q1- Who adopted an ‘open door’ policy?
Ans- China adopted an open-door policy.
Q2- Mention the objectives of establishing regional organisations?
Ans- The regional organisations were established because:
- To make regional development the fast-growing global economy.
- For economic growth through social and cultural development.
- Regional organisations promote regional peace and stability by basing it on the rule of law and the principles of the United Nations Charter.
Q3- Mention the components of the ASEAN Vision 2020?
Ans- The components of ASEAN Vision 2020 are
- A progressive looking role in an international
- Encouraging negotiations over conflicts in tie region.
- Ending the conflicts through peace talks and meetings
Q4- In what way the geographical proximity influence the formation of regional organisations?
Ans- The geographical proximity influences the formation of regional organisations by:
- It is influenced by some of the historical enmities and weaknesses.
- Similar interests also play a key role.
- The fruitful areas of the regional economy also result in geographical proximity.
Important Questions & Answers of Chapter 5- (Contemporary South Asia)
Q1- Mention three challenges to democracy in Nepal.
Ans- The three challenges faced by democracy in Nepal was the result of a triangular conflict between-
1. Monarchist forces
Q2- Give two areas each of cooperation and disagreement between India and Bangladesh.
Ans- Two areas of cooperation are:
- Economic relations are improved within the last ten years.
- There was cooperation on the issues of disaster management and the environment.
Q3- Among the following which statements about South Asia are wrong?
- All the countries in South Asia are democratic.
- Bangladesh and India have signed an agreement on river-water sharing.
- SAFTA was signed at the 12th SAARC Summit in Islamabad.
- The US and China play an influential role in South Asian politics
Ans- The wrong statement is ‘ all the countries in South Asia are democratic’.
Q4-Mention the reason for the formation of SAARC.
Ans- Due to the recognition of South Asian nations for cooperation and friendly relations among themselves, the formation of SAARC took place. It promoted trust and understanding among its member states.
Important Questions & Answers of Chapter 6- (International Organisations)
Q1- As a citizen of India, how would you support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of the security council? Justify your proposal.
Ans- As a citizen of India, we completely support India candidature for the permanent membership of the security council on the basis of the following points:
- India is the world’s largest democracy
- It is a financial contributor to the United Nations
- India participates in all UN initiatives
- India emerging as an economic power on the world stage
Q2- Who is currently the Secretary-General of UN?
Ans- Antonio Guterres of Portugal is the current Secretary-general of the UN.
Q3- Mention the functions of the Security Council.
Ans- The main function of the security council is to maintain peace and security between the nations.
Q4- Explain Veto Power. Do you think it should be modified?
Ans- It is a negative vote given to five permanent nations of the security council. It can be assumed that any form of modification will bring power change which might affect the various important decisions of the council.
Important Questions and Answers of Chapter 7- (Security in the Contemporary World)
Q1- Explain ‘Balance of Power’. How can a state achieve this?
Ans- ‘Balance of Power’ is a balance that is built between weaker and stronger countries. A weaker country is always in danger of attack from a stronger country. Hence, maintaining the balance of power of one’s military power through economic and technological power is to protect one’s own security.
Q2- Explain military threats?
Ans- Military threat is the military action from another country which endangers the core values of the country. It often targets men and women i.e. ordinary citizens.
Q3- What are the choices that are available to a state when its security is threatened, as per the traditional security perspective.
Ans- Traditional security perspective puts emphasis on compromises to limit the violence:
- Surrendering when confronted by the war, but not to advertise this as a country’s policy
- Preventing the other side from attacking by raising the costs of war
Q4- Explain Global Poverty.
Ans- Global Poverty is a condition of the states which occurs due to low incomes and less economic growth.
Important Questions and Answers of Chapter 8- (Environment and Natural Resources)
Q1- Mention the outcomes of the ‘Rio Summit’.
Ans- The outcomes of the Rio Summit were:
- It produced conventions that deal with climate change, biodiversity, forestry. It also recommended a list of development practices called Agenda 21.
Rio summit introduced the concept of sustainable development
- Rio-Summit introduced issues like Global Commons and commons in global politics.
Q2- What UNEP stands for?
Ans- UNEP stands for United Nations Environment Programme.
Q3- Which explains the best reason for growing concerns about the environment?
- The developed countries are concerned about projecting nature
- Protection of the environment is vital for indigenous people and natural habitats
- The environmental degradation caused by human activities has become pervasive and has reached a dangerous level
- None of the above.
Ans- The correct answer is ‘C’.
Q4- Explain Agenda 21.
Ans- Agenda 21 is the list with developed practices with ecological responsibility which promotes sustainable development.
Important Questions and Answers of Chapter 9- (Globalisation)
Q1- Do you agree with the argument that globalisation leads to cultural heterogeneity?
Ans- Globalisation does not always promote cultural heterogeneity but it promotes acceptance and outlook of other cultures.
Q2- Explain Globalisation.
Ans- It means economic and cultural integration with countries all over the world.
Q3- In what way technology has contributed to globalisation.
Ans- Technical equipment is contributing to globalisation by exchanging ideas, capitals and make people conveniently move from one place to another which stimulates the process of globalisation.
Q4- What are the factors that have contributed to the process of Globalisation?
Ans- Factors that have contributed to the Process of globalisation are:
- Historical Factors affecting the country’s relations
- The role played by international organisations like JMF and WTO.
- Changes like Liberalisation and privatisation.
- Advanced technological innovations.