CBSE 12th Political Science exam is scheduled to be on 6th March 2020. Students can go through the chapter -wise important questions and answers of 'Politics in India Since Independence'. The given NCERT textbook questions are from all the 9 chapters of the book and can be expected in CBSE Class 12 Board exam 2020.
Important Questions and Answers of Chapter 1 (Challenges of Nation Building)
Q1- What was the task of the States Reorganisation Commission? What was its most Salient recommendation?
Ans- The commission was set up in 1953 by Central Government to check the matters of redrawing boundaries of the recommendations of the state were:
- The Act was passed in 1956. It resulted in the creation of 14 states and 6 union territories.
- The commission states that the boundaries should reflect the boundaries of different languages which will accommodate linguistic diversity.
- One of the most important recommendations was the formation of linguistic states
Q2- What are the reasons being used by Nehru to keep India Secular? Do you think these reasons were only ethical and sentimental? Or were there any prudential reasons as well?
Ans- Reasons for secular India were:
- Muslims minority in India that stayed even after the partition
- Maintaining security and democratic rights of Muslims in India
The reasons were not only ethical but there were prudential reasons as well.
Q3- What is meant by Two Nation Theory?
Ans- Two Nation Theory was the concept that was created by Muhammad Ali Jinnah to create a separate Muslim state.
Q4- Name the leader who played an important role in negotiating princely states for joining the Indian Union.
Ans- The leader was Sardar Vallabhai Patel.
Important Questions and Answers of Chapter 2 (Era of One-Party Dominance)
Q1- Did the prevalence of a ‘one-party dominant system’ affect adversely the democratic nature of Indian politics?
Ans- No, the prevalence did not affect the democratic nature of Indian politics.
- The role of Congress in the freedom struggle was important for it to rule
- Congress won elections in the free and fair elections every time
Q2- The leaders like A.K. Gopalan, S.A. Dange were from which political party of India.
Ans- They were from the Communist Party of India.
Q3- Mention the founder Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
Ans- Bhartiya Jana Sangh was founded in 1951 by Shyama Prasad Mukherjee.
Q4- When an electric voting machine was used first time in India?
Ans- It was used in 1990 for the first time.
Important Questions and Answers of Chapter 3 (Politics of Planned Development)
Q1- What was the major thrust of the First Five Year Plan? In which ways did the Second Plan differ from the first one?
Ans- The First Five Year Plan was commenced in 1951 and it was drafted by Economist K.N. Roy. Its main thrusts were:
- Investing in dams and irrigation that will improve the agricultural sector
- Huge allocations for projects like Bhakra-Nangal Dam.
Focusing on land reforms
- Aim at an increasing level of National Income
The difference between the first five-year plan and the second five-year plan:
(a) The Second Five-year plan was much focused on heavy industrialisation.
(b) Second Five Year Plan plans on bringing quick structural transformation
Q2- Explain Green Revolution?
Ans- Green Revolution was to bring revolutionary changes in agriculture. The purpose was to increase production through high yielding varieties of seeds, fertilizers, and scientific irrigation.
Q3- Explain ‘Development’.
Ans- Development means a process that improves the living standard of people. It also means an improvement in the economic level through industrialisation.
Q4- What were the primary responsibilities of India after Independence.
Ans- The primary responsibilities were:
- Alleviating poverty
- Agricultural development
Important Questions and Answers of Chapter 4 (India’s External Relations)
Q1- Why did Nehru regard the conduct of foreign relations as an essential indicator of independence?
Ans- India decided to conduct its foreign relations with respect to the sovereignty of other nations and maintain peace and security through mutual cooperation.
Q2- Explain Foreign Policy.
Ans- Foreign policy of the nation is the systematic statements of national interests.
Q3- Which article of the Indian Constitution promotes International peace and security.
Ans- Article 51
Q4- What was the beginning of the strong relationship between India and China?
Ans- It was Panchsheel that mentions the five principles of peaceful co-existence.
Important Questions and Answers of Chapter 5 (Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System)
Q1- What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s?
Ans- The factors were:
- She strengthened her party’s position and ended her dependence on other political parties
- Congress gained popularity among different social sections and restored the dominance
- Indira Gandhi’s government was accepted as a strong government
Q2- Discuss the major issue which led to the formal split of the Congress Party in 1969.
Ans- The split in Congress in 1969 was on the issue of nomination of the candidate during presidential elections.
Q3- What is ‘Congress Syndicate’?
Ans- ‘Congress Syndicate’ was a group of powerful and influential leaders in the Old Congress.
Q4- Mention the slogan of Indira Gandhi during the 1971 elections.
Ans- The slogan was ‘Garibi Hatao’.
Important Questions and Answers of Chapter 6 (The Crisis of Democratic Order)
Q1- Give the reasons which led to the mid-term elections in 1980?
Ans- The reasons were:
- Janata party government was not able to bring a fundamental change in the established policies by Congress
- Janata Party was lacking leadership, direction and a common programme
Q2- What were the reasons that the Government gave for declaring a National Emergency in 1975?
Ans- The reasons given by the government were:
- The political crisis was used to bring emergency
- The government mentioned the threat of internal disturbance
Q3- Which Political party came to power in 1977?
Ans- Janta Party came to power in 1977.
Q4- Give the main reason for the defeat of Congress party in the 1977 elections?
Ans- The slogan ‘Save Democracy’ adopted by the opposition party.
Important Questions and Answers of Chapter 7 (Rise of Popular Movements)
Q1- Why did the Narmada Bachao Aandolan oppose the dam projects in the Narmada Valley?
Ans- The reasons were:
- Narmada Bachao movement demanded proper rehabilitation of those who affected by the constructions
- The movement focused on local communities and demanded their say
- The movement questioned the nature of the decision-making process
Q2- What issues did the Dalit Panthers address?
Ans- The issues were:
- They fought against the caste-based inequalities and material injustices
- Dalits faced collective atrocities over issues of caste pride
Q3- Mention the main aspect of the Chipko Movement.
Ans- The active participation of women in the movement.
Q4- Explain Popular movements.
Ans- Popular movements are the movements of people facing social or political atrocities. They are organised under the banner of various social organisations and voice their demands.
Important Questions and Answers Chapter 8 (Regional Aspirations)
Q1- Why did the Anandpur Sahib Resolution become controversial?
Ans- It became controversial because:
- Akali Dal started a movement on the distribution of water that was between Punjab and its neighbouring states.
- The lack of popularity of Akali Dal resolution had a United appeal.
Q2- The Assam movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. Explain.
Ans- Find the following points below:
- The pride were drained out of state without giving any benefit to the people.
- It was against the outsiders maintaining the cultural integration of Assam.
Q3- Jammu and Kashmir State comprises of which three social and political regions.
Ans- These regions were Jammu, Kashmir, and Laddakh.
Q4- Name the student group that led the anti-foreigner movement in Assam.
Ans- The student group was All Assam Student’s Union in 1979 (AASU).
Important Questions and Answers of Chapter 9 (Recent Developments in Indian Politics)
Q1- State the main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989. What different configurations of political parties these differences lead to?
Ans- The country witnessed five main developments:
- Ending of congress system.
- Issues related to Mandal
- Latest Economic Reform
- Babri Masjid
- The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in the 1989 election led to the defeat of Congress party. It also led to the emergence of the era of ‘Multi-Party- System’. In it, no single party secured a majority in the Lok Sabha elections since 1989.
Q2- When the new Economic reform introduced?
Ans- The new economic reform was introduced in 1991.
Q3- Name the two alliances which formed the government at the centre in 1989 and 1996.
Ans- National Front which was formed in 1989 and United Front which was formed in 1996.
Q4- When the phase of coalition politics started?
Ans- The coalition politics started in India with the elections of 1989.