In this article, you are given a quiz of 25 questions based on English Language & comprehension. This test contains the questions hail from the previous year questions about various exams like SSC, IBPS, RBI and etc. The questions put in it are of mixed nature, including major questions for English Comprehension, Antonyms/Synonyms and Grammatical Errors.
To qualify this test, following transcendencies is required.
Check out the above discussed questions: -
Directions (Q. Nos. 1 to 15) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
It is being projected as a boon for the agricultural sector. In reality, it will be the beginning of the end for Indian farmers. It has happened in the West. Ever since big retail - dominated by, multi-brand retailers has entered the market, farmers have disappeared and poverty has increased. Today, not more than seven lakh farmers remain on the farms in the West. According to a report, every minute one farmer quits agriculture. Farmers' incomes have come down by more than forty per cent. These days low supermarket prices are being cited as the reason for the exodus of dairy farmers too. It is therefore futile to expect the supermarkets rescuing farmers in India.
Despite the destruction of farming globally, administrators in India are gung-ho about allowing foreign direct investment in multi-brand retailing. "The agriculture sector needs well functioning .markets to drive growth, employment and economic prosperity in rural areas," says a discussion paper.
Since 2006, India has allowed a partial opening up of the retail sector. Have these retail units benefited Indian farmers and the consumers? The answer is no. The argument for setting up of big retail chains is that the supermarket chains will squeeze out the middlemen thereby providing higher prices to farmers and at the same time provide large investments for the development of post-harvest infrastructure. All these claims are untrue, and big retail has not helped farmers anywhere in the world.
If the supermarkets were so efficient, why is the West providing a massive subsidy for agriculture. After all, the world's biggest retail giants are based in the West and it should have helped their farmers become economically viable. But it did not happen. Till 1950, a farmer who would receive about seventy per cent of what was spent on food receives no more than 3 to 4 per cent today. And, that is why, the farmers there are being supported in the form of direct income support by the government.
A report by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), a group comprising the richest 30 countries in the world, states explicitly that farm subsidies rose by 22 per cent in 2009, up from 21 per cent in 2008. In just 2009, industrialised countries provided a subsidy of Rs. 1260 billion. And it is primarily for this reason that farm incomes are lucrative. Take the Netherlands: the average farm family income is 275 per cent of the average household income. This is because of farm subsidies, not supermarkets. India is therefore importing a failed model from the West especially when India is incapable of providing such heavy subsidies to its farmers.
Regarding employment, big retail does not squeeze out middlemen from the food chain. Supermarkets claim that they remove middlemen and therefore are able to provide a higher price to farmers. In reality, what happens is the opposite. Supermarkets are themselves the big middlemen. They replace that small fish. Supermarkets replace the plethora of small middlemen. The muneem clad in a dhoti-kurta is replaced by a smartly dressed up middleman. So, while the farmer pauperises, the profit of supermarkets multiply.
Based on biased studies by consultancy firms and some institutes, it is believed that supermarkets will create employment and therefore help in ameliorating poverty. This is a flawed assumption. Lessons need to be drawn from a 2004 study done at Pennsylvania State University. The authors measured the impact of a retail boom on poverty in various adjoining states. The comprehensive study clearly brings out that those American states that had more retail stores in 1987, hid higher poverty rates by 1999 than the states where fewer stores were set up.
At stake is the livelihood security of 120 lakh small shopkeepers, 4 crore hawkers and at least 20 crore (of the 60 crore) small farmers. What is needed is more public sector investment in setting up a chain of mandis across the country. Providing an assured market and reasonable procurement price is what Indian farmers need. This has to be supplemented by a network of foodgrain banks at panchayat level that assure local production and distribution.
1. Why does the author disagree with the idea that big retail stores can salvage farmers' condition in India?
(a) The farmers in India still prefer to sell their produce to local middlemen and mandis than to the big retail stores
(b) There have been examples throughout the world that the big retail chains further deteriorate the condition of the farmers
(c) Big retail chains buy the farmers' produce at a much lower cost as compared to the present middlemen
(d) The government subsidies to the farmers selling their produce directly to big retail stores is far lesser than the ones who sell their produce to the government itself
(e) Selling the produce to small shopkeepers and hawkers saves the farmers of the expenses involved in selling it to big retail stores which are mostly based in big cities
2. Complete the following sentence by selecting the alternative which is most appropriate in the context of the passage.
Although it was assumed that retail chain giants would squeeze out middlemen from the farming sector,
(a) the retail chain giants helped the farmers get subsidies from the government
(b) India is still contemplating allowing foreign direct investment in multi-brand retailing
(c) the retail chain giants themselves proved to be a rambling version of the smaller middlemen
(d) the government was more concerned ,about the welfare of the farmers
(e) None of the above
3. Which of the following is true in context of the passage?
(a) Noticing the state of farmers in the West owing to, the advent of retail giants, Indian administrators are not too keen to allow multi brand retailing in India
(b) Supermarket chains have provided large investments for the development of post-harvest infrastructure
(c) These days, farmers in the West earn several times more than their earnings half a century ago
(d) India is providing heavy subsidies to cover up the losses made by the farmers because of retail chain giants
(e) None of the above
4. The fact that the West provides enormous subsidies to its farmers proves that
(a) the government in the West lures the farmers into selling their produce to retail chain giants in return of such subsidies
(b) many farmers who had given up farming as a profession are now returning to it
(c) supermarkets have indeed helped in making farming a lucrative business
(d) the retail chains are arm twisting, the government to provide subsidies to the farmers who sell their produce to them
(e) the retail chains have failed to benefit the farmers thus forcing the government to come to their rescue
5. Which of the following have been the arguments for. setting up big retail stores in India?
A. The retail chains would sell the farmers' produce at a comparatively higher price than the smaller shops so as to improve the farmers' profit.
B. The retail. chains would drive the middlemen out of the system, thus improving farmers' profit margin.
C. Big retail chains in the West have been taking strides of growth and have been benefiting the farmers.
D. The big retail chains would provide an organized market which would bring about growth in the rural areas.
(a) A and C
(b) C and D
(c) A, C and D
(d) B and D
(e) All A, B, C and D
6. The author of the given passage definitely
(a) is indicating that the West has completely failed to make agriculture a lucrative sector
(b) is against the argument that retail chain giants can help come to the rescue of farmers in India
(c) is not in favour of removing the local middlemen as they provide a higher price to the farmers
(d) is suggesting that the Indian Government must increase farm subsidies emulating some of the western countries
(e) is comparing the successful performance of retail chains in India as opposed to those in the West
7. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the given passage?
(a) Multi brand retailing—Making farming more lucrative
(b) Supermarkets—Towards employment and growth in rural areas
(c) Supermarket—A super risk for farmers
(d) Allowing—Supermarkets in India-Why are administrators unwilling?
(e) Supermarkets—Making the farmers rich via subsidies
8. What, according to the author, are the reasons behind the fact that farmers income in some countries in the West is several times an average household?
(a) Farming in these countries is lucrative as farmers are provided with a good return for their produce
(b) Big retail chains have benefited the farmers enormously
(c) Retail chains have completely wiped out the middlemen in these countries and have thus, increased the farmers' profit
(d) Huge subsidies are being provided by the government to these farmers
(e) None of the above
9. Which of the following suggestion/s has/h.ave been made by the author to address the present problems of Indian farmers?
A. Increasing the procurement price of their crops to a certain rational limit.
B. Opening more retail chains so as to provide them an assured market for their yield.
C. Assuring the production and distribution of food grains at local level as well.
(a) A and C
(b) B and C
(c) A and B
(d) Only C
(e) Only B
Directions (Q. Nos. 10 to 12): Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
11. Brings Out
Directions (Q. Nos. 13 to 15): Choose the word/phrase which is most opposite in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
Directions (Q. Nos. 16 to 25): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error if any will be in one part of the sentence, the number of that part will be the answer. If there is no error, mark (e) as the answer. (Ignore errors of punctuation if any).
16. The right to adequate food (a)/ and clean drinking water (b)/ should be regarded as a (c)/ basic right of all citizens of India. (d)/ No error (e)
17. A sharp fall in (a)/ international prices of tea (b)/ have lead Tea plantation workers (c)/ in Kerala to face starvation. (d)/ No error (e)
18. In spite freedom of the press is vital to democracy (a)/ the thin line, between reporting facts (b)/ and expressing opinions on them (c)/ is being increasingly crossed. (d)/ No error (e)
19. In India, the teacher has been elevated (a)/ to a position of power (b)/ and a part of that power has been (c)/ to assuming the right to punish the students. (d)/ No error (e)
20. In the flying game, there are a host of (a)/ new low-cost airlines that dare to roar, (b)/ providing a glimmer of hope of (c)/ more cheapper air transport to millions. (d)/ No error (e)
21. A question worth to ask is that (a)/ whether the National Awards represent (b)/ Pan-Indian cinema or (c)/ is the focus on mainstream films only. (d)/ No error (e)
22. Indian every single (a)/ expectation from its cricket team (b)/ invariably oscillates between (c)/ a cynical pessimism and an unjustified optimism. (d)/ No error (e)
23. The road widening exercise (a)/ who aims to make National Highway a four-lane highway, (b)/ poses a threat to the (c)/ fragile environment of the Himalayas. (d)/ No error (e)
24. In the aftermath of the Asian Tsunami, (a)/ the sporting community have responded (b)/ swiftly to contribute in whatever way it could, (c)/ both financially and qualitatively. (d)/ No error (e)
25. Seen as an indicator of the maturity (a)/ of outsourcing business in India, (b)/ the Indian outsourcing market is (c)/ expected to growth to eleven billion dollar by this year. (d)/ No error (e)
All the Best!!!