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IAS Prelims Exam: Modern History Questions: Swarajists and No-Changers

Nov 18, 2016 18:13 IST

    Modern Indian History section in IAS Prelims Exam is quite easy but the aspirants need to memorize well before appearing in the exam. The IAS Exam aspirants should have a balanced preparation of overall sections in modern history like from administrative changes to Socio- Political changes taking place within the Indian society. We have attempted to cover all the probable questions on political groups like Swarajists and No-Changers in this article.

    CURRENT AFFAIR QUIZZES AND EVENTS FOR PRELIMS 2017

    1. Consider the following statements regarding the Swarijists :

    1) Those leaders advocating entry into legislative councils came to be known as the Swarajists.
    2) Swarajists school of thought was led by Vallabhbhai Patel, Rajendra Prasad, C. Rajagopalachari and M.A. Ansari.

    Choose the correct statements:

    a. Only 2
    b. Only 1
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    In the early 1920’s, there was disintegration and disorganization among nationalist ranks. A debate started among Congressmen on what to do during the transition period. One section led by C.R. Das, Motilal Nehru and Ajmal Khan wanted an end to the boycott of legislative councils so that the nationalists could enter them to expose the basic weaknesses of these assemblies.

    Those advocating entry into legislative councils came to be known as the Swarajists, while the other school of thought led by Vallabhbhai Patel, Rajendra Prasad, C. Rajagopalachari and M.A. Ansari came to be known as the 'No-changers'. The 'No-changers' opposed council entry.

    2. Consider the following statements representing no changers school of thought:

    1) Opposed council entry.
    2) Concentration on constructive work.
    3) Continuation of philosophy of boycott and noncooperation.
    4) C.R Das and Motilal Nehru were their main leaders.

    Codes:

    a. 1,2 and 3
    b. 2,3 and 4
    c. 1,3 and 4
    d. All of the above

    Answer: a

    Explanation:

    The school of thought led by Vallabhbhai Patel, Rajendra Prasad, C. Rajagopalachari and M.A. Ansari came to be known as the 'No-changers'. The 'No-changers' opposed council entry, advocated, concentration on constructive work, and continuation of boycott and noncooperation, and quiet preparation for resumption of the suspended civil disobedience programme. While, Those advocating entry into legislative councils came to be known as the Swarajists.

    3. Who was the first president of All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) founded in 1920?

    a. Bhagat Singh
    b. Lala Lajpat Rai
    c. Dewan Chaman Lal
    d. Subhas Chandra Bose

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    Lala Lajpat Rai was its first president and Dewan Chaman Lal its general secretary of the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) founded in 1920. Tilak was also one of the moving spirits of the trade union movement.

    The major strikes during the 1920s included those in Kharagpur Railway Workshops, Tata Iron and Steel Works Bombay Textile Mills and Buckingham Carnatic Mills. In 1923, the first May Day was celebrated in India in Madras.

    4. Consider the features of significant Gaya session of the Congress in December 1922:

    1) C.R.Das presided over Gaya session of Indian National Congress in 1922.
    2) The Swarajists' proposal of ending or mending the councils was approved.
    3) Motilal Nehru resigned from the secretary ship of the Congress and announced the formation of Congress-Khilafat Swarajya Party.

    Choose the correct Codes:

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 3
    c. 2 and 3
    d. 1 and 2

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    The differences over the question of council entry between the two schools of thought (namely the Swarajists and the no changers) resulted in the defeat of the Swarajists proposal of 'ending or mending' the councils at the Gaya session of the Indian National Congress in December 1922.

    C.R Das and Motilal Nehru resigned from the president ship and secretary ship respectively of the Congress and announced the formation of Congress-Khilafat Swarajya Party, with C.R. Das as the president and Motilal Nehru as one of the secretaries.

    QUESTIONS ON INITIAL YEARS OF GANDHIJI

    5. The outcome of November elections of 1923 was successful for the Swarajists:

    1) The Swarajists were allowed to contest elections as a group within the Congress.
    2) The Swarajists had managed to win 62 out of 141 elected seats and a clear majority in legislatures.
    3) C.R.Das, the president of the Swarajists was elected as the speaker of the legislature.

    Choose the correct statements:

    a. Only 2
    b. Only 1
    c. 1,2 and 3
    d. None of the above

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    The Swarajists were allowed to contest elections as a group within the Congress. The Swarajists accepted the Congress programme with only one difference that they would join legislative councils.

    The Swarajists Manifesto for Elections took a strong anti-imperialist line. In the November 1923 elections, the Swarajists had managed to win 42 out of 141 elected seats and a clear majority in the provincial assembly of Central Provinces and, in legislatures, had joined hands with the Liberals and the independents like Jinnah and Malaviya.

    6. Consider the achievements of Swarajists within the legislature:

    1) Vithalbhai Patel was elected speaker of Central Legislative Assembly.
    2) They outvoted the Government several times, even on matters relating to budgetary grants, and passed adjournment motions.
    3) A noteworthy achievement was the defeat of the Public Safety Bill.

    Choose the correct statement:

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Only 3
    d. All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    By their political activities, the Swarajists filled the political vacuum at a time when the national movement was recouping its strength. They demonstrated that the councils could be used creatively by agitating powerful speeches on self government and civil liberties and outvoting the Government several times, even on matters relating to budgetary grants.

    They were able to elect Vithalbhai Patel as the speaker of Central Legislative Assembly in 1925. A noteworthy achievement was the defeat of the Public Safety Bill in 1928 which was aimed at empowering the Government to deport undesirable and subversive foreigners.

    7. The group on Non-Responsivist lines within the Swarajists was led by:

    a. Lala Lajpat Rai
    b. Motilal Nehru
    c. N.C.Kelkar
    d. Madan Mohan Malaviya

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    By 1924, the Swarajists position had weakened and a split among themselves was observed on communal and Responsivist-Non-responsivist lines. The Responsivists among Swarajists which were led by Lala Lajpat Rai, Madan Mohan Malaviya and N.C. Kelkar advocated cooperation with the Government and holding of office wherever possible to protect the so called Hindu interests. They accused the Non-responsivists like Motilal Nehru of being anti-Hindu.

    MORE HISTORY QUESTIONS

    8. The constructive workers done by the no changers served as the backbone of civil disobedience. The constructive work included:

    1) National schools and colleges were set up where students were trained in a non-colonial ideological framework.
    2) Significant work was done for Hindu-Muslim unity.
    3) Constructive work for boycott of foreign cloth and popularization of charkha and khadi.
    4) Ashrams were built where young, men and women of upper caste Hindus worked together.

    Choose the correct statements:

    a. All of the above
    b. Only 1
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    The constructive workers done by the no changers served as the backbone of civil disobedience which included: building of Ashrams where young, men and women worked, among tribal’s and lower castes (especially in Kheda and Bardoli areas of Gujarat), and popularized charkha and khadi.

    National schools and colleges were set up where students were trained in a non-colonial ideological framework and significant work was done for Hindu-Muslim unity, removing untouchability, boycott of foreign cloth and liquor, and for flood relief.

    9. Consider the following statements regarding the Communist Party of India (CPI):

    1) The Communist Party of India (CPI) was formed in 1920 in Kanpur by M.N. Roy.
    2) The Indian Communist Conference at Tashkent (now, the capital of Uzbekistan) formalized the foundation of the CPI in 1925.
    3) Many communists’ leaders were jailed in the Kanpur Bolshevik conspiracy case.

    Choose the correct statements:

    a. 1 and 2
    b. 2 and 3
    c. 3 and 1
    d. Only 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    The Communist Party of India (CPI) was formed in 1920 in Tashkent (now, the capital of Uzbekistan) by M.N. Roy, Abani Mukherji and others after the second Congress. M.N. Roy was also the first to be elected to the leadership. In 1925, the Indian Communist Conference at Kanpur formalized the foundation of the CPI.

    In 1924, many communists like S.A. Dartge, Muzaffar Ahmed, Sh.aukoa Usmani, and Nalini Gupta were jailed in the Kanpur Bolshevik conspiracy case. In 1929, the Government crackdown on communists resulted in the arrest and trial of 31 leading communists, trade unionists and left-wing leaders who were tried at Meerut in the famous Meerut conspiracy case.

    10. The famous Bardoli Satyagraha in Gujarat in 1928 was led by:

    a. M.K.Gandhi
    b. Sardar Patel
    c. Indulal Yaanik
    d. All of the above

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    Various peasants’ agitations in the United Provinces started in the 1920’s for the revision of tenancy laws, including lower rents, protection against eviction and relief from indebtedness. Similar peasant agitations took place in the Rampa region of Andhra, in Rajasthan, in ryotwari areas of Bombay and Madras. In Gujarat, the Bardoli Satyagraha was led by Patel in 1928.

    MORE QUESTIONS ON MODERN HISTORY

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