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IAS Prelims Exam: Modern History Questions: Initial years of Mahatma Gandhi

Feb 8, 2017 11:57 IST

    MCQ on GandhijiThe Modern history section is interesting as well as challenging. Questions asked from Modern Indian History section in IAS Prelims Exam are quite easy, but the aspirants need to memorise well before appearing in the exam.

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    The IAS Exam aspirants should have balanced preparation of overall three sections of the History. We have attempted to cover all the probable questions on Gandhiji’s initial years in India and the non-cooperation movement in this article.

    CURRENT AFFAIRS BASED QUESTIONS AND QUIZZES

    1. What was the purpose of establishing ‘Tolstoy Farm’ in South Africa by Gandhiji?


    1) Tolstoy Farm was meant to house the families of the Satyagrahies to give them a way to sustain themselves in South Africa
    2) All those who had lost their jobs and homes by their participation in the Satyagraha could be settled there.
    3) It was named after a famous Russian writer admired by Gandhiji’s.

    Codes:

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Only 3
    d. All are correct    

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Hermann Kallenbach, a white farmer, was so impressed with the peaceful way of life at Phoenix that he offered, Gandhi his own big farm near Johannesburg to start another establishment. He suggested that all those who had lost their jobs and homes by their participation in the Satyagraha during the struggle for equal rights in South Africa could be settled there.

    The new establishment was named ‘Tolstoy Farm’, after the Great Russian writer whom Gandhi much admired. Here people who were different in nationality, religion, and colour lived together like one family. They worked hard and shared the fruits of their labour.

    2. Consider the following statements regarding the Gandhi's Technique of Satyagraha:

    1) It was based on truth and violence.
    2) Only the brave and strong could practice Satyagraha, which was not for the weak and cowards.
    3) Even the violence was preferred to cowardice.

    Choose the correct statement:

    a. Only 2 and 3
    b. Only 2
    c. Only 3
    d. All are correct    

    Answer: a

    Explanation:

    Gandhi evolved the technique of Satyagraha during his stay in South Africa. It was based on truth and non-violence. Its basic tenets were
    • A satyagrahi was not to submit to what he considered as wrong, but was to always remain truthful, non-violent and fearless.
    • He should be ready to accept suffering in his struggle against the evil doer. This suffering was to be a part of his love for truth. A true satyagrahi would never bow before the evil, whatever the consequence.
    • Only the brave and strong could practice Satyagraha, which was not for the weak and cowards. Even the violence was preferred to cowardice. Thought was never to be separated from practice.

    Modern History NCERT Questions on Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement

    3. What was the ‘carrot and stick policy’ envisaged by the British government after the end of First World War?

    1) The stick was represented by the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms.
    2) The carrot was represented by the measures such as the Rowlatt Act.

    Codes:

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    After the end of First World War, there was a resurgence of nationalist activity in India and Indian struggle against imperialism took a decisive turn towards a broad-based popular struggle. But the British Government was not prepared to part with or even share its power with the Indians and once again resorted to the policy of 'carrot and stick'. The carrot was represented by the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms and government of India act 1919, while measures such as the Rowlatt Act represented the stick.

    4. Which of the following statements are correct regarding Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms?

    1) M.K. Gandhi called the Montford Reforms only a method of further draining India of her wealth and of prolonging her servitude.
    2)  J.L. Nehru said that the Government of India Act, 1919 forged fresh fetters for the people.
    3)  The Congress declared the reforms to be "disappointing" and "unsatisfactory".

    Codes:

    a. Only 1 and 3
    b. 1, 2 and 3
    c. Only 2
    d. Only 3

    Answer: a

    Explanation:

    In line with the government policy contained in Montagu's statement, the Government announced further constitutional reforms known as Montford Reforms. But these reforms had many drawbacks that made it unfixable for Indians to accept, hence many Indian leaders condemned it like Subhas Chandra Bose said that the Government of India Act, 1919 forged fresh fetters for the people and M.K. Gandhi called the Montford Reforms only a method of further draining India of her wealth and of prolonging her servitude.

    Whereas, the Congress met in a special session in August 1918 at Bombay under Hasan Imam's presidency and declared the reforms to be "disappointing" and "unsatisfactory" and demanded effective self-government instead.

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    5. Who did Sarojini Naidu give the title of “the Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity” after the successful Lucknow Pact between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League?

    a. M.K.Gandhi
    b. Muhammad Ali Jinnah
    c. S.C.Bose
    d. J.L.Nehru

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    The Lucknow Pact refers to an agreement reached between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at the joint session of both the parties, held in Lucknow, in the year 1916.

    Muhammad Ali Jinnah, then a member of the Congress as well as the League, made both the parties reach an agreement to pressure the British government to adopt a more liberal approach to India and give Indians more authority to run their country, besides safeguarding basic Muslim demands.
    Due to the reconciliation brought about by Jinnah between the Congress and the League, the Nightingale of India, Sarojini Naidu, gave him the title of “the Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity”.

    6. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding Rowlatt act?

    1) Every single Indian member of the Central Legislative Council opposed the passing of Rowlatt Act.
    2) This Act authorised the Government to imprison any person without trial and conviction in a court of law.
    3) It enabled the Government to grant the right of habeas corpus.

    Codes:

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Only 3
    d. All are correct

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    On the one hand the Government dangled the carrot of constitutional reforms and on the other hand, it decided to arm itself with extraordinary powers to suppress any discordant voices against the reforms. In March 1919, it passed the Rowlatt Act even though every single Indian member of the Central Legislative Council opposed it.

    This Act authorised the Government to imprison any person without trial and conviction in a court of law, thus enabling the Government to suspend the right of habeas corpus which had been the foundation of civil liberties in Britain.

    Current Affairs Quizzes for January 2017

    7. Who moved the main resolution of Non-cooperation in the Nagpur session of Indian national congress in 1920?

    a. C.R.Das
    e. M.K.Gandhi
    f.  Muhammad Ali Jinnah
    b. S.C.Bose

    Answer: a

    Explanation:

    C.R.Das moved the main resolution of Non-cooperation in the Nagpur session of Indian national congress in 1920. Other important outcomes of the Nagpur session of the Indian National Congress were that the programme of non-cooperation was endorsed; an important change was made in the Congress creed in which the Congress decided to have the attainment of Swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means, thus committing itself to an extra-constitutional mass struggle.

    8. Consider the names of the following Campaigns against crucial issues:

    1) Campaign against Registration Certificates
    2) Campaign for Home rule league
    3) Campaign against Restrictions on Indian Migration
    4) Campaign against Poll Tax and Invalidation of Indian Marriages
    5) Campaign against Jallianwala Bagh massacre

    Which of the above campaign happened due to suppressive policies against Indians in South Africa?

    a. 1,2,3 and 5
    b. 1,3 and 4
    c.  2,3 and 5
    d. All of the above

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    Satyagraha against Registration Certificates started when a new legislation in South Africa made it compulsory for Indians there to carry at all time certificates of registration with their fingerprints. The Campaign against Restrictions on Indian Migration was a protest against a new legislation imposing restrictions on Indian migration in South Africa.

    The Campaign against Poll Tax and Invalidation of Indian Marriages started when a Supreme Court order invalidated all marriages not conducted according to Christian rites and by the registrar of marriages which declared all Hindu marriages invalid.

    MORE HISTORY QUESTIONS

    9. Which of the following statements are correctly matched?

    1) Champaran Satyagraha – Against the European planters had been forcing peasants to grow indigo on 3/20 of the total land commonly called tinkathia system.

    2) Ahemdabad Satyagraha- The authorities refused to grant remission to peasants according to revenue code (if the yield was less than one-fourth the normal produce, the farmers were entitled to remission) during the time of drought.

    3) Kheda Satyagraha- Gandhi intervened in a dispute between mill owners and the workers over the issue of discontinuation of the plague bonus.

    Codes:

    a. Only 2 and 3
    b. Only 2
    c. Only 1
    d. All are correct    

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    Kheda Satyagraha was started against the British authorities who refused to grant remission to peasants according to revenue code (if the yield was less than one-fourth the normal produce, the farmers were entitled to remission) during the time of drought.

    Ahemdabad Satyagraha took power when Gandhi intervened in a dispute between mill owners of Ahemdabad and the workers over the issue of discontinuation of the plague bonus. The Champaran Satyagraha was a historic success for Gandhiji’s for peasants against the European planters had been forcing peasants to grow indigo on 3/20 of the total land commonly called the tinkathia system.

    10. Consider the following statements regarding the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre:

    1)  It happened when a large crowd had gathered in the jallianwala bagh to protest against the arrest of their leaders, Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satya al.
    2)  Raleigh Commission was established to investigate the events in Jallianwala Bagh, Punjab.
    3)  Udham Singh, an Indian independence activist killed Michael O'Dwyer, the British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab at the time of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

    Codes:

    a.  Only 1
    b.  Only 2
    c.  1 and 3
    d.  All of the above

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on Baisakhi day when a large, crowd of people mostly from neighbouring villages, unaware of the prohibitory orders in the city, had gathered in this small park to protest against the arrest of their leaders, Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satya al. The Army surrounded the aring unmoor orders from General Dyer and blocked the only exit point and opened fire on the unarmed crowd killing around1000.

    Hunter Commission was established to investigate the events in Jallianwala Bagh, Punjab. In 1940, at Caxton Hall in London, Udham Singh, an Indian independence activist who had witnessed the events in Amritsar and was himself wounded, shot and killed Michael O'Dwyer, the British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab at the time of the massacre, who had approved Dyer's action and was believed to be the main planner.

    11. Who among the following gave up their law practice during the non-corporation movement?

    a.  Motilal Nehru,
    b.  Jawaharlal Nehru
    c.  C. Rajagopalachari
    d.  All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Non- corporation movement was accompanied by large-scale protests and boycott led by Gandhiji. About 90,000 students left government schools and colleges and joined around 800 national schools and colleges which cropped up during this time. These educational institutions were organised under the leadership of Acharya Narendra Dev, C.R. Das, Lala Lajpat Rai, Zakir Hussain, and Subhash Bose.

    Many lawyers gave up their practice, some of whom were Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, C.R. Das, C. Rajagopalachari, Saifuddin Kitchlew, Vallabhbhai Patel, Asaf Ali, T. Prakasam and Rajendra Prasad.

    MORE QUESTIONS ON MODERN HISTORY

     

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