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IAS Prelims Exam: Modern History NCERT Questions: Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement

Aug 31, 2018 18:10 IST

    Civil Service is what Mahatma did. Questions asked from Modern Indian History section in IAS Prelims Exam are quite easy but the candidates need to memorise well before appearing in the exam. The candidates should have balanced preparation of overall three sections of the History and its chronology is one of the most important parts of the subject history which enable candidates to memorise well every important aspects of history.

    Following Multiple Choice Questions of Modern Indian History would help students in understanding the nature of questions asked in IAS Prelims Exam.

    Q1. Consider the following statements regarding the history of nationalism:
    I. Garibaldi regarded is considered as one of the “fathers of fatherland” in Italy because he was associated with the making of Italy.
    II. Ho Chi Minh universally called "Uncle Ho," for his contribution in the struggle for free Vietnam from Colonial rule.
    III. George Washington is considered as the father of his country for his contribution in struggle to free America from Great Britain.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    A. Only I
    B. I and II
    C. I and III
    D. All of the above

    Answer: D

    Explanation:
    In the history of nationalism a single individual is often identified with the making of a nation. Thus, for example, we associate Garibaldi with the making of Italy, George Washington with the American War of Independence, and Ho Chi Minh with the struggle to free Vietnam from colonial rule. In the same manner, Mahatma Gandhi has been regarded as the ‘Father’ of the Indian nation.

    Q2. Consider the following facts about Mahatma Gandhi:
    I. In January 1917, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi returned to his homeland after two decades of residence abroad.
    II. Mahatma Gandhi went South Africa as a lawyer, and became a leader of the Indian community in that territory.
    III. It was in South Africa that Mahatma Gandhi first forged the distinctive techniques of non-violent protest known as satyagraha, first promoted harmony between religions, and first alerted upper-caste Indians to their discriminatory treatment of low castes and women.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    A. Only I
    B. I and II
    C. II and III
    D. All of the above

    Answer: C

    Explanation:
    In January 1915, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi returned to his homeland after two decades of residence abroad. These years had been spent for the most part in South Africa, where he went as a lawyer, and in time became a leader of the Indian community in that territory. As the historian Chandran Devanesan has remarked, South Africa was “the making of the Mahatma”. It was in South Africa that Mahatma Gandhi first forged the distinctive techniques of non-violent protest known as satyagraha, first promoted harmony between religions, and first alerted upper-caste Indians to their discriminatory treatment of low castes and women. How to write Essay in IAS Exam ?

     



    Q3. Which of the following sentences is incorrect regarding the Swadeshi movement of 1905-07?
    A. The Swadeshi movement of 1905-07 had greatly broadened its appeal among the middle classes.
    B. The Swadeshi movement of 1905-07 had greatly broadened its appeal among the lawyer communities.
    C. The Swadeshi movement had thrown up some towering leaders – like “Lal, Bal and Pal” the alliteration conveying the all-India character of their struggle, since their native provinces were very distant from one another.
    D. The Swadeshi movement leaders advocated militant opposition to colonial rule, there was a group of “Moderates” who preferred a more gradual and persuasive approach.

    Answer: B

    Explanation:
    The Swadeshi movement of 1905-07 had greatly broadened its appeal among the middle classes. Among the Moderate leaders were Gandhiji’s acknowledged political mentor, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, as well as Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who, like Gandhiji, was a lawyer of Gujarati extraction trained in London. On Gokhale’s advice, Gandhiji spent a year travelling around British India, getting to know the land and its peoples.

    Q4. In which of the following year, Mahatma Gandhi made appearance in a major public event?
    A. 1915
    B. 1916
    C. 1918
    D. 1919

    Answer: B

    Explanation:
    On Gokhale’s advice, Gandhiji spent a year travelling around British India, getting to know the land and its peoples. His first major public appearance was at the opening of the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in February 1916.

    Q5. Which of the following initiatives marked Mahatma Gandhi out as a nationalist?
    A. The initiatives in Champaran, Ahmedabad and Kheda marked Gandhiji out as a nationalist with a deep sympathy for the poor.
    B. The initiatives in South Africa marked Gandhiji out as a nationalist with a deep sympathy for the poor.
    C. The initiatives Khilafat movement of 1919-20 marked Gandhiji out as a nationalist with a deep sympathy for the poor.
    D. The initiatives Non-cooperation movement of 1920-22 marked Gandhiji out as a nationalist with a deep sympathy for the poor.

    Answer: A

    Explanation:
    These initiatives in Champaran, Ahmedabad and Kheda marked Gandhiji out as a nationalist with a deep sympathy for the poor. At the same time, these were all localised struggles. Then, in 1919, the colonial rulers delivered into Gandhiji’s lap an issue from which he could construct a much wider movement.

    Q6. Consider the following statements regarding Gandhiji’s countrywide campaign against the “Rowlatt Act”:
    I. In towns across North and West India, life came to a standstill, as shops shut down and schools closed in response to the bandh call.
    II. The protests were particularly intense in the Punjab, where many men had served on the British side in the War – expecting to be rewarded for their service.
    III. Gandhiji was detained while proceeding to the Punjab, even as prominent local Congressmen were arrested.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    A.    Only I
    B.    I and II
    C.    I and III
    D.    All of the above

    Answer: D

    Explanation:
    During the Great War of 1914-18, the British had instituted censorship of the press and permitted detention without trial. Now, on the recommendation of a committee chaired by Sir Sidney Rowlatt, these tough measures were continued. In response, Gandhiji called for a countrywide campaign against the “Rowlatt Act”. In towns across North and West India, life came to a standstill, as shops shut down and schools closed in response to the bandh call. The protests were particularly intense in the Punjab, where many men had served on the British side in the War – expecting to be rewarded for their service. Instead they were given the Rowlatt Act. Gandhiji was detained while proceeding to the Punjab, even as prominent local Congressmen were arrested. The situation in the province grew progressively more tense, reaching a bloody climax in Amritsar in April 1919, when a British Brigadier ordered his troops to open fire on a nationalist meeting.

    Q7. Consider the following statements regarding the campaign of Non-cooperation movement of 1920-22:
    I. It was the Rowlatt satyagraha that made Gandhiji a truly national leader and emboldened by its success, Gandhiji called for a campaign of “non-cooperation” with British rule.
    II. Indians who wished colonialism were asked to stop attending schools, colleges and law courts, and not pay taxes and also they were asked to adhere to a “renunciation of (all) voluntary association with the (British) Government”.
    III. To further broaden the struggle he had joined hands with the Khilafat Movement that sought to restore the Caliphate, a symbol of Pan-Islamism which had recently been abolished by the Turkish ruler Kemal Attaturk.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    A. Only I
    B. I and II
    C. I and III
    D. All of the above

    Answer: C

    Explanation:
    Indians who wished colonialism to end were asked to stop attending schools, colleges and law courts, and not pay taxes. In sum, they were asked to adhere to a “renunciation of (all) voluntary association with the (British) Government”. If noncooperation was effectively carried out, said Gandhiji, India would win swaraj within a year.

    Q8. Consider the following statements regarding the Khilafat movement:
    I. The Khilafat Movement, (1919-1920) was a movement of Indian Muslims, led by Mahatma Gandhi.
    II. The Khilafat Movement, (1919-1920) was a movement of Indian Muslims, led by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.
    III. There were 396 strikes in 1921, involving 600,000 workers and a loss of seven million workdays.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    A. Only I
    B. I and II
    C. I and III
    D. All of the above

    Answer: D

    Explanation:
    Gandhiji hoped that by coupling non-cooperation with Khilafat, India’s two major religious communities, Hindus and Muslims could collectively bring an end to colonial rule. These movements certainly unleashed a surge of popular action that was altogether unprecedented in colonial India. Students stopped going to schools and colleges run by the government. Lawyers refused to attend court. The working class went on strike in many towns and cities: according to official figures, there were 396 strikes in 1921, involving 600,000 workers and a loss of seven million workdays. The countryside was seething with discontent too.

    Q9. Consider the following statements regarding the demands of the Khilafat Movements:
    I. The Turkish Sultan or Khalifa must retain control over the Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile Ottoman empire.
    II. The jazirat-ul-Arab (Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Palestine) must remain under Muslim sovereignty.
    III. The Khalifa must be left with sufficient territory to enable him to defend the Islamic faith.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    A. Only I
    B. I and II
    C. I and III
    D. All of the above

    Answer: D

    Explanation:
    The Khilafat Movement, (1919-1920) was a movement of Indian Muslims, led by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, that demanded the following: The Turkish Sultan or Khalifa must retain control over the Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile Ottoman empire; the jazirat-ul-Arab (Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Palestine) must remain under Muslim sovereignty; and the Khalifa must be left with sufficient territory to enable him to defend the Islamic faith. The Congress supported the movement and Mahatma Gandhi sought to conjoin it to the Non-cooperation Movement.

    Q10. During the nationalist movements, series of “Praja Mandals” were established:
    I. To promote the nationalist creed in the princely states.
    II. To promote the tradition of wearing dhoti-kurta for all the nationalists.
    III. To oppose Simon Commission of 1927 which was to report on the working of the Indian constitution established by the Government of India Act of 1919.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    A. Only I
    B. I and II
    C. I and III
    D. All of the above

    Answer: A

    Explanation:
    While Mahatma Gandhi’s mass appeal was undoubtedly genuine – and in the context of Indian politics, without precedent – it must also be stressed that his success in broadening the basis of nationalism was based on careful organisation. New branches of the Congress were set up in various parts of India. A series of “Praja Mandals” were established to promote the nationalist creed in the princely states. Gandhiji encouraged the communication of the nationalist message in the mother tongue, rather than in the language of the rulers, English. Thus the provincial committees of the Congress were based on linguistic regions, rather than on the artificial boundaries of British India.

     

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