15 August: Independence Day of India
India celebrated its 68th Independence Day on 15 August 2014, as India became independent nation from British Rule on 15 August 1947. On this day citizens of India pay homage to their leaders and freedom fighters.
On the eve of 68th Independence Day, the President Pranab Mukherjee addressed the Nation on the evening of 14 August 2014 and called for creative thinking in governance that enables fast-track development and ensures social harmony.
It was followed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi unfurling the national flag on Red Fort in Delhi and singing of national anthem Jana Gana Mana on 15 August 2014 and a speech that unveiled his government’s vision for the nation’s development. On this Day he announced certain schemes like launching of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and relaunching Varisth Pension Bima Yojana. Besides, he also expressed his concern over increasing crimes against women.
Flag hoisting ceremonies and cultural programs were also held in the state capitals, many schools and organizations.
How India Achieved Independence?
- The Indian Independence Act 1947 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which was in effect implementation of the Mountbatten Plan, partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan (including Bangladesh) with effect from 15 August 1947. The Act received royal assent on 18 July 1947.
- On 3 June 1947 Mountbatten Plan was unveiled by the then Viceroy Lord Louis Mountbatten which advanced the date for power transfer to 15 August 1947 so as to mark the second anniversary of Japan's Surrender in World War II.
- On 20 February 1947, the Labour government under Prime Minister Clement Attlee announced that the British government would grant full self-governance to British India by June 1948 at the latest.
- In 1929, at Lahore session of the Indian National Congress, the Purna Swaraj declaration was promulgated and 26 January was declared as Independence Day.
- The Indian National Congress called on to pledge the civil disobedience movement and 26 January was celebrated as Independence Day from 1930 to 1947. Later after India achieved Independence, 26 January is celebrated as Republic Day.
- After the 1857 Revolt, Government of India Act 1858, the British Crown took over its Indian possessions, its administrative powers and machinery, and its armed forces and through East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act 1873 the East India Company was dissolved.
- Government of India Act 1853, which provided that British India would remain under the administration of the Company in trust for the Crown until Parliament should decide otherwise, which was also one of the reasons for 1857 Revolt.
- Charter Acts 1793 and 1813 enabled British to the sovereignty of the British Crown over the Indian territories held by the East India Company.
- In 1784 Pitt's India Act or The East India Company Act 1784 was enacted to address the shortcomings of Regulating Act of 1773, creating Board of Control (Council) and provided for a joint government of British India Both By Company and Queen.
- Regulating Act of 1773 is known to be the first step of the British government to regulate the affairs of the East India Company, creating an Office of the Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William.
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