The Tughlaqs were a Muslim family of Turkic origin. The dynasty reached its zenith point between AD 1330 and 1335 when Muhammad Bin Tughlaq led military campaign. Its rule was marked by torture, cruelty and rebellions, resulting in the rapid disintegration of the dynasty's territorial reach after 1335 AD.
The Tughlaq's provided three competent rulers – Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, Muhammad-bin- Tughluq and Firuz Shah Tughluq.
1. He was the founder of the dynasty. His father was a Turk and mother was a Jat woman of Punjab.
2. He strengthened the defence of the North-Western frontier in order to check the Mongol invasions.
3. His son Fakhr-ud-din Muhammad Jauna Khan defeated the Kakatiya ruler of Warangal, Prataparudra-Deva II.
4. He founded the city of Tughlaqabad.
5. He put down the revolt of Ghiyasuddin Bahadur in Bengal. On returning from Bengal, he died in 1325, from the collapse of a wooden pavilion. According to the some historians, he died because of the conspiracy hatched by his son Jauna Khan because the pavilion was constructed by the royal architect (Mir Imard) Ahmad.
1. Jauna Khan succeeded his father in AD 1325 under the title of Muhammad- bin-Tughlaq.
2. He was the most learned scholars of his time. He knew both Arabic and Persian and had comprehensive knowledge of philosophy, astronomy, logic, mathematics and physical science.
3. The Sultan maintained good relation with foreigners and received an envoy from the Chinese ruler.
4. Toghan Timur (AD 1341), who came to seek permission to rebuild Buddhist Monasteries, in the Himalayan region which were destroyed during the crucial expedition.
5. The sultan gave the permission and sent Ibn Batutah to the court of the Chinese emperor in 1347.
6. Ibn Batutah was a traveller from Morocco. He came to India in 1333 and was appointed as the chief Qazi of Delhi by Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
7. He has left an invaluable account of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq's reign.
Reforms and Experiments
8. Sultan lacked political judgement and common sense and, rather obsesses with his theoretical knowledge, indulged in lofty theories and visionary projects, which failed.
Economic Reform-Token Currency
9. One of the most unique reforms of the sultan is said to be inspired by the introduction of paper token currency in China and Iran.
10. In his first reform, he replaced the old gold and silver coins weighing 175 grains by new coins
(i) Dinar gold coins - 200 grains
(ii) Adali silver coins - 140 grains
Then he ordered the Tanka to be minted in bronze instead of silver and fixed the value of the new bronze coins at par with the silver tanka.
11. He raised the land revenue in the Doab and imposed many other taxes.
12. Instead of actual produce- standard yield was taken into account based on the officially assumed prices.
13. Unfortunately, the rain failed and there was a terrible famine in the country. The taxes were collected rigorously. The peasants revolted in the doab. Later, several measures were taken by the Sultan.
14. He created an agricultural department, "Diwan-i-Kohi" under the charge of "Diwan-i-Amir-i-Koht" to bring barren (ban jar) land under cultivation.
15. Sondhar (agricultural) loans were advanced to dig wells and to buy seed and implements.
16. Shiqdars were appointed and given large sums of money to implement the scheme, but they were incompetent and the scheme failed. However, the scheme became a part of the agricultural policy of the Mughals.
17. The failure of the schemes of the Sultan caused a crisis in the empire. The political stability and economic prosperity of the empire began to disintegrate. Revolts broke out throughout the country.
18. The earlier two revolts by Baha-ud-din Gurshap (Deccan) and Bahram Aiba Kishlu Khan (Sind and Multan) were suppressed. But, later, many states declared their independence.
(i) Jalal-ud-din Ahsan Shah set up independent Muslim kingdom of Madura.
(ii) Fakhrud-din Mubarak Shah - Bengal
(iii) Ain-ul-mulk - Oudh and Zaf- arab ad
(iv) Prolaya Nayaka and Kapaya Nayaka organised a Hindu national movement with Hoysala king, Balal III against Muslim rule and established the kingdom of Vijayanagar in Telinga (AD 1336).
(v) Abul Muzaffar Alauddin Bahman Shah established a Bahmani kingdom in Devagiri (AD 1347).
19. In AD 1351, sultan was attacked with fever while chasing the rebels in Sind and died near Tattah.
20. The chiefs elected his cousin, Firuz Tughlaq, to be the next sultan.
1. He ascended to the throne at the age of forty six. He was the son of Rajab by his Bhatti wife, who was the daughter of Abuhar chief, Rana Mall.
2. He was not a distinguished military leader his campaigns are as follows: He led two unsuccessful campaigns into Bengal against Haji Iliyas (Shams-ud-din Iliyas Shah) and Sikandar Shah. Tartar Khan commanded the army.
3. The Rai of Jajnagar (modern Orissa) and Nagarkot and the ruler of Sind (Jam Babaniya) surrendered before the sultan. He also indirectly acknowledged the independence of the Balmani king by receiving embassy from him.
Reforms and Experiments
4. He carried out many reforms and works of public utility with the help of his able minister - Khan-i-Jehan Maqbool, a Hindu convert.
5. He revived the Jagir system (grant of lands) which had been abolished by Alauddin and granted it to his military officials in lieu of cash salaries. The iqtas granted and the post of officials and soldiers was made hereditary. This reduced the competent men and has negative impact on the army.
6. He organized the institution of slavery into a system and employed them in Royal Karkhanas and other production activities. A separate department, Diwan-i- Bandagan, was established for the welfare of the people.
7. He established a charity bureau called Diwan-i-Khairat for the help of poor persons, widows and or phans and through which pecuniary help was distributed for the marriage of poor Muslim girls. A charitable hospital called Darul-Shafa was set up at Delhi was free medicine and diet was supplied.
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