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Fundamentals of Inorganic Chemistry

26-FEB-2016 12:00

    Inorganic chemistry is that chemistry which deals with the synthesis and behaviour of inorganic and organ metallic compounds. This part of chemistry covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry.

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    Important term used in inorganic chemistry

    Allotropy: The two or more than two forms of any elements are called allotrops; it can also be defined as a variant of a substance consisting of only one type of atom. It is a new molecular configuration, with new physical properties. Substances that have allotropes include carbon, oxygen, sulphur, and phosphorous while the presence of element in more than one form is called allotropy.

    Elements

    Allotrops

    Carbon

    Diamond, graphite, wood charcoal, bone charcoal, blood charcoal etc.

    Phosphorous

    White or Yellow phosphorous, red phosphorous, black violet etc.

    Oxygen

    Ozone

    Sulphur

    Rhombic sulphur, monoclinic sulphur, amorphorous sulphur, plastic sulphur etc.

    Phosphorescence: It is that phenomena of substance, when any substance like calcium sulphide etc is kept open in sunlight then the optical radiations are absorbed by such substance and even after removing sunlight source and it also emits radiation.

    Fluorescence: If the visible light be absorbed by certain substances then their atomic electrons become excited and sometimes, when these electrons come in their original state then different radiations of different wavelengths are obtained then it is said to be the phenomena of  fluorescence.

    Efflorescence:  The salts like NaCl. 10 H2O, Na2CO3.10 H2O etc. have excess of water and when these are left in air then these water crystals vaporise and salts transform into crystal powder, this phenomenon is called efflorescence.

    Sublimation: It is a process in which certain solid substances like benzoic acid, anthracin, camphor, anthaquibinon, ammonium chloride etc on heating directly transform themselves into gaseous state and when these are cooled appropriately then come into original solid state.

    Isotope: Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons; the different possible versions of each element are called isotopes. For example- Hydrogen has three isotopes- protium (1H1), deuterium (1H2), and tritium (1H3).

    Isobar: The element which has equal atomic number but different mass number then it is called Isobar. For example- Argon (20Ar40), Potassium (19K40) and Calcium (20Ca40).

    Activity series of metal: A general order of the sequences of metals in Chemistry on the basis of decreasing order of the reactivities.

    Corrosion: When the metallic surfaces are affected by moisture, water, air etc then it is called corrosion of the metals.

    Malleability and Ductility: The property of something that can be worked, hammered or shaped without breaking; and the malleability of something that can be drawn into threads, wires or hammered into thin sheets

    Physical Changes and Chemical changes: Physical changes occur in the physical shape, size, physical state etc. while Chemical changes occur in the internal molecular composition.

    Galvanization: It is a process of laminating a thin layer of fusing or molten zinc through appropriate process of electrolysis to protect the metals like iron, copper etc. from rusting and corrosion.

    Atomicity: It is a number atom present in a molecule of any element or compound.

    Catalysis: It is a chemical substance that increases or decreases the rate of any chemical reaction but do not take part in the chemical reaction is called catalyst and the process is called catalysis.

    Enzyme: It is a biological molecule (proteins) that act as catalysts and help complex reactions occur everywhere in life. Let's say you ate a piece of meat. Proteases would go to work and help break down the peptide bonds between the amino acids.

    DISCLAIMER: JPL and its affiliates shall have no liability for any views, thoughts and comments expressed on this article.

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