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GK Questions and Answers on the development of judicial system during British India

26-FEB-2018 16:13
    GK Questions and Answers on the development of judicial system during British India

    Today, India has single unified and integrated judicial system and the Supreme Court of India is the apex court of Judicial System in India. It was unified, codified and systematized under the British rule because before that the concept of justice was inextricably linked with religion and was embedded with the norms of socially stratified caste groups. Here, we are giving 10 GK Questions and Answers on the development of the judicial system during British India with an explanation.

    1. When was the when a Mayor’s Court in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta was established by the East India Company?

    A. 1726 AD

    B. 1678 AD

    C. 1710 AD

    D. 1789 AD

    Ans: A

    Explanation: Under the Charter of 1726, a Mayor’s court was established at each presidency town viz. Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. A is the correct option.

    2. Which of the following court in India established under the regulating act of 1773 AD?

    A. Supreme Court of India

    B. Supreme Court of Fort William

    C. Civil disputes for District Diwani Adalat and criminal disputes for District Fauzdari Adalats.

    D. None of the above

    Ans: B

    Explanation: Regulating Act of 1773 established for the first time the Supreme Court of Fort Williams in Calcutta in 1774, consisting of the Chief Justice and three judges (later reduced to two) appointed by the Crown acting as King’s court.

    3. Consider the following statement (s) is/are related to the reforms under Warren Hastings

    I. He established two courts for resolving disputes –civil disputes for District Diwani Adalat and criminal disputes for District Fauzdari Adalats.

    II. He shifted Sadar Nizamat Adalat to Calcutta and put it under the supervision of Governor-General and the members of Supreme Council who were assisted by Chief Qazi and Chief Mufti.

    Code:

    A. Only I

    B. Only II

    C. Both I and II

    D. Neither I nor II

    Ans: A

    Explanation: Warren Hasting established, two court for resolving disputes –District Diwani Adalat was established in districts to resolve the civil disputes which were placed under the collector; District Fauzdari Adalats was set up to resolved the criminal issues which were placed under an Indian officers assisted by Qazi and Muftis. A is the correct option.

    4. Who among the following abolished the District Fauzadari Court and set up Circuit Court at Calcutta?

    A. Lord Dalhousie

    B. Warren Hastings

    C. Lord William Bentinck

    D. Lord Cornwallis

    Ans: D

    Explanation: Under Cornwallis, the District Fauzadari Court was abolished and Circuit Court was set at Calcutta, Decca, Murshidabad and Patna. It acts as a court of appeal for civil as well as criminal cases which was functioned under the European judges. D is the correct option.

    GK Questions and Answers on the Acts before 1857 during British India

    5. Consider the following

    I. It provided for the establishment of a Federal Court, which was set up in 1937 with appellate and advisory jurisdiction.

    II. According to this act, the four Circuit Courts were abolished and transferred the functions of the abolished court to the collectors under the supervision of the commissioner of revenue and circuit.

    Which of above statement (s) is/are correct about the Government of India Act, 1935?

    A. Only I

    B. Only II

    C. Both I and II

    D. Neither I nor II

    Ans: A

    Explanation: The Government of India Act, 1935 changed the structure of the Indian Government from “unitary” to that of “federal” type. It also provided for the establishment of a Federal Court, which was set up in 1937 with appellate and advisory jurisdiction. Its appellate jurisdiction was extended to civil and criminal cases. A is the correct option.

    6. Who among the following made English language as official language for Supreme Court proceeding?

    A. Lord Dalhousie

    B. Warren Hastings

    C. Lord William Bentinck

    D. Lord Cornwallis

    Ans: C

    Explanation: Lord William Bentinck made the Persian and a Vernacular language for the court proceeding in lower court and made English language as official language for Supreme Court proceeding. Hence, C is the correct option.

    GK Questions and Answers on the Acts after 1857 during British India

    7. Which of the following committee/ commission is related to the law commission during British India?

    A. Sargent Plan

    B. MacDonnell Commission

    C. Fraser Commission

    D. Macaulay Commission

    Ans: D

    Explanation: The passing of Charter Act of 1833 was led by appointment of Lord Macaulay as India’s First Law member of the Governor General in Council. During reign of William Bentinck, Law commission was set up by Macaulay which codified the Indian laws. Hence, D is the correct option.

    8. Who among the following known for the establishment of sovereignty of law in India?

    A. Lord Dalhousie

    B. Warren Hastings

    C. Lord William Bentinck

    D. Lord Cornwallis

    Ans: D

    Explanation: Lord Cornwallis is known for the establishment of sovereignty of law in India because he established the gradation civil courts for both Hindu and Muslim such as Munsiff Court, Registrar Court, District Court, Sadar Diwani Adalat and King-in-Council. Hence, D is the correct option.

    9. Who among the following was the first Chief Justice of Supreme Court during British India?

    A. Sir Elijah Imphey

    B. Sir Robert Chambers

    C. Sir John Anstruther 

    D. Sir Henry Russell

    Ans: A

    Explanation: The Supreme Court at Fort William, Calcutta was founded by an Act of Parliament in 1774. Sir Elijah Imphey was appointed as chief justice of this court. Sir Robert Chambers was second, Sir John Anstruthe was third, and Sir Henry Russell was fourth chief justice.

    10. Assertion (A): The beginning of Indian codified common law is traced back to 1726 when a Mayor’s Court in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta was established by the East India Company.

    Reason (R): This was the first sign of Company’s transformation from a trading company to a ruling power with the added flavour of new elements of the Judiciary.

    Codes:

    A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

    B. Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A

    C. A is true but R is false

    D. Both A & R is not true

    Ans: A

    Explanation: Under the Charter of 1726, a Mayor’s court was established at each presidency town viz. Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. The difference between the old courts and this new court was that the earlier Mayor’s courts were of the Company but the newer courts were of the King of England. The term in the charter made is implicit that English Law had to be applied in the Mayor’s Courts in India. Hence, B is the correct option because both A and R is true and R is not the correct explanation of A.

    1000+ GK Questions & Answers on Indian History

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