A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit organisation which is task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest that organised at local, national or international level. It is diverse groups of organizations engaged in an extensive range of activities which is revolving around services like human rights, environment or health and humanitarianism. In 1945, the term "non-governmental organization" was firstly coined during the establishment year of United Nation Organisation.
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It influence the policy-making and policy-implementation in the government through legal and legitimate methods like lobbying, correspondence, publicity, propagandising, petitioning, public debating, maintaining contacts with their legislators and so forth. In other words, it brings citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information on the basis of analysis and expertise.
Work related Acronyms of NGOs
1. Business-friendly international NGO or Big international NGO (BINGO). For Example- Red Cross Society
2. Environmental NGO (ENGO). For Example- World Wildlife Fund
3. Government-Operated NGO (GONGO) is quasi-NGO which work as NGO but created by the government
4. International NGO (INGO). For Example- Oxfam
5. Quasi-autonomous NGO (QUANGO). For Example- ISO
6. Religious International NGO (RINGO). For Example- Catholic Relief Services
7. Donor Organized NGO (DONGO)
8. Technical assistance NGO (TANGO)
9. Market advocacy NGO (MANGO)
Types of NGOs by Orientation
1. Charitable orientation: It is involves in a top-down paternalistic effort with little participation by the "beneficiaries" that includes activities addressing the needs of the poor peoples.
2. Service orientation: Its work is revolving around the provision of health, family planning or education services.
3. Participatory orientation: It is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved particularly in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, tools, land, materials, labour etc.
4. Empowering orientation: The prime objective of this types of NGOs is to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social, political and economic factors affecting their lives, and to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives.
Types of NGOs by level of Operation
1. Community-based organizations (CBOs): These types of NGOs are responsible for raising the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services, and providing such services.
2. City-wide organizations: The chambers of commerce and industry, coalitions of business, ethnic or educational groups, and associations of community organizations are included in these NGOs.
3. National NGOs: YMCAs/YWCAs, professional associations and similar groups are examples of this type of NGOs.
4. International NGOs: Ducere Foundation and Save the Children organizations, OXFAM, CARE, Ford Foundation, and Rockefeller Foundation to religiously motivated groups are the examples of International NGOs.