World Malaria Day 2022: Check Malaria, Symptoms, Causes, Risk factors, Prevention, Vaccine, and Countries free from Malaria

World Malaria Day 2022: World Malaria Day is observed on April 25 across the world to raise awareness to control and eradicate malaria. It is a preventable and treatable disease. On this day, know about malaria, its symptoms, causes, risk factors, prevention, vaccine, and countries that are free from malaria including Indian states.
Created On: Apr 25, 2022 11:14 IST
Modified On: Apr 25, 2022 11:14 IST
World Malaria Day
World Malaria Day

World Malaria Day 2022:  According to the WHO, cases of malaria were estimated at 241 million across the world in 2020, and estimated deaths stood at 627,000 in 2020. Also, in 2020, the WHO African Region was home to 95% of cases of malaria and 96% of malaria deaths. In the region, children under 5 accounted for about 80% of all malaria deaths. 

World Malaria Day is observed on April 25 across the world to raise awareness to control and eradicate malaria. It is a preventable and treatable disease. This year's theme is " Harness innovation to reduce the malaria disease burden and save lives.” On this day, know about malaria, its symptoms, causes, risk factors, prevention, vaccine, and countries that are free from malaria including Indian states.

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What is Malaria and how is it caused?

According to the WHO, it is an acute febrile illness. It is caused by Plasmodium parasites, which are spread to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. 

Five species of parasites cause malaria in humans, and of those, two species, namely P. falciparum and P. vivax, pose the greatest threat. The deadliest malarial parasite is P. falciparum, which is the most prevalent on the African continent. The dominant malaria parasite in most countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa is P. Vivax.

So we can say that malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. If it is left untreated, it may develop severe complications and die. As per the CDC, about 2000 cases of malaria are diagnosed in the United States each year. 

What are the Symptoms of Malaria?

- Chills

- Fever

- Headache

- Feeling of discomfort generally

- Nausea and Vomiting

- Diarrohea

- Abdominal Pain

- Muscle or joint pain

- Fatigue

- Rapid breathing

- Rapid heart rate

-Cough

It is also said that some people who have malaria experience cycles of malaria "attacks". An attack usually begins with shivering and chills, followed by a high fever, sweating, and then a return to normal temperature. The signs and symptoms of malaria begin within a few weeks after being bitten by an infected mosquito. Also, some types of malaria parasites can lie dormant in the bodies of humans for up to a year.

What are the risk factors?

For developing malaria, the greatest risk factor is living in or visiting areas where the disease is common. These are tropical and subtropical regions of the

-South and Southeast Asia

- Sub-Saharan Africa

- Central America and northern South America

- Pacific Islands, etc.

Furthermore, the level of risk is determined by local malaria control, seasonal changes in malaria rates, and the precautions that people take to avoid mosquito bites.

People at high risk of the disease are young children, older adults, pregnant women and their unborn children, and travellers coming from areas with no malaria.

World Malaria Day 2022: Prevention

Certain measures are listed below to avoid mosquito bites:

- Cover skin, by wearing pants, long-sleeved shirts, etc.

- Apply insect repellent to the skin. It should be registered with the Environment Protection Agency on any exposed skin.

- Also, apply repellent to clothing.

- Use bed nets or sleep under a net.

WHO recommends the broad use of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine among children living in regions with moderate to high P. falciparum malaria transmission since October 2021. The medicine showed a significant reduction in cases of malaria and deadly severe malaria among children.

World Malaria Day 2022: List of countries and territories certified malaria-free by WHO

Country/territory  Malaria-free certified Countries
Africa  
Algeria 2019
Lesotho  
Mauritius 1973
La Réunion (France) 1979
Seychelles  
Eastern Mediterranean  
Bahrain  
Jordan  
Kuwait  
Lebanon  
Libya  
Morocco 2010
Qatar  
Tunisia  
United Arab Emirates 2007
Europe  
Albania  
Andorra  
Armenia 2011
Austria  
Belarus  
Belgium  
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1973
Bulgaria 1965
Croatia 1973
Cyprus 1967
Czechia  
Denmark  
Estonia  
Finland  
France (Metropolitan)  
Germany  
Greece  
Hungary 1964
Iceland  
Ireland  
Israel  
Italy 1970
Kazakhstan  
Kyrgyzstan 2016
Latvia  
Lithuania  
Luxembourg  
Malta  
Monaco  
Montenegro 1973
Netherlands 1970
Norway  
Poland 1967
Portugal 1973
Republic of Moldova  
Republic of North Macedonia 1973
Romania 1967
Russian Federation  
San Marino  
Serbia 1973
Slovakia  
Slovenia 1973
Spain 1964
Sweden  
Switzerland  
Turkmenistan 2010
Ukraine  
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland  
Uzbekistan 2018
Americas  
Antigua and Barbuda  
Argentina 2019
Bahamas  
Barbados  
Canada  
Chile  
Cuba 1973
Dominica 1966
El Salvador 2021
Grenada 1962
Jamaica 1966
Paraguay 2018
Saint Kitts and Nevis  
Saint Lucia 1962
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  
Trinidad and Tobago 1965
United States of America 1970
Uruguay  
South-East Asia  
Maldives 2015
Sri Lanka 2016
Western Pacific  
Australia 1981
Brunei Darussalam 1987
China 2021
Cook Islands  
Fiji  
Japan  
Kiribati  
Marshall Islands  
Micronesia (Federated States of)  
Mongolia  
Nauru  
New Zealand  
Niue  
Palau  
Samoa  
Singapore 1982
Tonga  
Tuvalu  

Source: who

Those countries that have achieved at least 3 consecutive years of zero indigenous cases are eligible to apply for a WHO certification of malaria-free status.

Therefore, 40 countries and territories were granted malaria-free certification by WHO. The latest country that was declared malaria-free by the WHO is China. Other recent countries that joined the malaria-free club are El Salvador (2021), Argentina (2019), Paraguay (2018), and Uzbekistan (2018). So far, in India, none of the states has been able to completely eliminate malaria.

READ| Important Days and Dates in April 2022

 

 

 

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