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Ancient History Question for IAS Preparation: Jainism and Buddhism Part 2

Feb 15, 2018 18:30 IST
    Ancient History Question for IAS Preparation: Jainism and Buddhism Part 2
    Ancient History Question for IAS Preparation: Jainism and Buddhism Part 2

    Ancient History questions provided in this article are very useful for IAS preparation and such questions can be asked in IAS Prelims Exam. So, the IAS aspirants practice questions and conceptualise whole events of ancient history according. The given questions are also beneficial for the State PCS Exam.

    Ancient History Question for IAS Preparation: Jainism and Buddhism Part 1

    1. The initial religious literature of Jainism was written in which of the following languages?
    a. Prakrit
    b. Ardhamagadhi
    c. Sanskrit
    d. None of the above

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    Jainism made the first serious attempt to mitigate the evils of the varna older and the ritualistic Vedic religion The early Jainas discarded Sanskrit language mainly patronized by the Brahmans. They adopted Prakrit language of the common people to preach their doctrines Thou religious literature was written in Ardhamagadhi, and the texts were finally compiled in the sixth century A.D in Gujarat at a place called Valabhi, a great centre of education. The adoption of Prakrit by the Jainas helped the growth of this language and its literature Many regional languages developed out of Prakrit languages, particularly Sauraseni, out of which grew the Marathi language The Jainas composed the earliest important works in Apabhramsa and its first grammar. The Jaina literature contains epics, Puranas, novels and drama. A large portion of the Jaina writing is still in the form of manuscripts, which have not been published and which are found in the Jaina shrines of Gujarat and Rajasthan. In early medieval times, the Jainas also made good use of Sanskrit and wrote many texts in this language. Last but not the least; they contributed to the growth of Kannada, in which they wrote extensively.

    2. The Marathi language developed out of which of the following ancient language of India?
    a. Sanskrit
    b. Hindi
    c. Sauraseni
    d. Pali

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    The adoption of Prakrit by the Jainas helped the growth of this language and its literature Many regional languages developed out of Prakrit languages, particularly Sauraseni, out of which grew the Marathi language The Jainas composed the earliest important works in Apabhramsa and its first grammar. The Jaina literature contains epics, Puranas, novels and drama. A large portion of the Jaina writing is still in the form of manuscripts, which have not been published and which are found in the Jaina shrines of Gujarat and Rajasthan. In early medieval times, the Jainas also made good use of Sanskrit and wrote many texts in this language. Last but not the least, they contributed to the growth of Kannada, in which they wrote extensively.

    IAS Prelims Exam: Complete Study Material for HISTORY

    3. Consider the following statements regarding the doctrines of Buddhism:
    1. According to the Buddhism, the world is full of sorrows and people suffer on account of desires.
    2. Gautama Buddha recommended an eight fold path (astangika marga) for the elimination of human misery.
    3. Buddhism comprised right observation, right determination, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right exercise, right memory and right meditation.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a. 1 only
    b. 1 and 2
    c. 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    The Buddha proved to be a practical reformer who took note of the realities of the day. He did not involve himself in fruitless controversies regarding the soul (atman) and the Brahma which raged strongly in his time; he addressed himself to the worldly problems He said that the world is full of sorrows and people suffer on account of desires. If desires are conquered, nirvana will be attained, that is, man will be free from the cycle of birth and death. Gautama Buddha recommended an eight fold path (astangika marga) for the elimination of human misery. This path is attributed to him in a text of about the third century B.C. It comprised right observation, right determination, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right exercise, right memory and right meditation. If a person follows this eight fold path he would not depend on the machinations of the by goodness and hatred by love He refused to priests, and yet he will be able to reach his destination Gautama taught that a person should avoid the excess of both luxury and austerity. He prescribed the middle path.

    4. Consider the following statements regarding the features of Buddhism:
    1. Buddhism recognizes the existence of god and soul (atman) which was quite different from the practices followed by Brahmanas in the ancient period.
    2. Women also were admitted to the Sangha and thus brought on a par with men.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a. 1 only
    b. 2 only
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    Buddhism does not recognize the existence of god and soul (atman). This can be taken as a kind of revolution in the history of Indian religions. Since early Buddhism was not enmeshed in the clap-trap of philosophical discussion, it appealed to the common people, It particularly won the support of the lower orders as it attacked the varna system People were taken into the Buddhist order without any consideration of caste. Women also were admitting ted to the Sangha and thus brought on a par with men. In comparison with Brahmanism, Buddhism was liberal and democratic.

    Buddhism made a special appeal to the people of the non-Vedic areas where it found a virgin soil for conversion. The people of Magadha responded readily to Buddhism because they wore looked down upon by the orthodox Brahmans. Magadha was placed outside the pale of the holy Aryavarata, the land of the Aryas, covering modern Uttar Pradesh. The old tradition persists, and the people of north Bihar would not like to be cremated south of the Ganga in Magadha.

    5. Which of the following languages was used to spread Buddhism?
    a. Sanskrit
    b. Prakrit
    c. Sauraseni
    d. Pali

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    The use of Pali, the language of the people, also contributed to the spread of Buddhism. It facilitated the spread of Buddhist doctrines among the common people. Gautama Buddha also organized the sangha or the religious order, whose doors were kept open to everybody, irrespective of caste and sex. The only condition required of the monks was that they would faithfully observe the rules and regulations of the sangha. Once they were enrolled as members of the Buddhist Church they had to take the vow of continence, poverty and faith. So there are three main elements in Buddhism. Buddha, Sangha and dhamma As a result of organized preaching under the auspices of the sangha Buddhism made rapid strides even in the lifetime of the Buddha. The monarchies of Magadha, Kosala and Kausambi and several Republican states and their people adopted this religion.

    IAS Prelims Exam: ANCIENT HISTORY Study Material

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