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1. Consider the following statement about the Indus Valley Civilization?
I. Barley has been found from one of Indus Valley Civilization sites
II. People of Indus Valley Civilization used to put on the bangles.
III. People of Indus Valley Civilization used to trade with other countries
Which of above statement is/ are true about the Indus Valley Civilization?
a. I Only
b. II Only
c. I, II and III
d. III Only
According to the archaeo-botanists, who are specialists in ancient plant remains, grains found at Harappan sites include wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea and sesame. Millets are found from sites in Gujarat. Finds of rice are relatively rare.
2. Which of following statement is incorrect about the Indus Valley Civilization?
a. People of Indus Valley Civilization used to practice agriculture
b. No site of this civilization has been found in Haryana region.
c. Oxen, Buffaloes and goats were domesticated animals in Indus Valley Civilization.
d. All of the above
The prevalence of agriculture is indicated by finds of grain; it is more difficult to reconstruct actual agricultural practices. Were seeds broadcast (scattered) on ploughed lands? Representations on seals and terracotta sculpture indicate that the bull was known, and archaeologists extrapolate from this that oxen were used for ploughing. Moreover, terracotta models of the plough have been found at sites in Cholistan and at Banawali (Haryana).
Archaeologists have also found evidence of a ploughed field at Kalibangan (Rajasthan); associated with Early Harappan levels (see p. 20). The field had two sets of furrows at right angles to each other, suggesting that two different crops were grown together.
3. Consider the following pairs with respect to Harappan civilization:
1. Carnelian(red stone) beads
2. Chert weights
3. Copper and Bronze tools, weapons, ornaments and vessel
4. Gold and Silver ornaments and vessel
Which of the above pairs are correctly matched?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
The Harappans procured materials for craft production in various ways. For instance, they established settlements such as Nageshwar and Balakot in areas where shell was available. Other such sites were Shortughai, in far-of f Afghanistan, near the best source of lapis lazuli, a blue stone that was apparently very highly valued, and Lothal which was near sources of carnelian (from Bharuch in Gujarat), steatite (from south Rajasthan and north Gujarat) and metal (from Rajasthan). Another strategy for procuring raw materials may have been to send expeditions to areas such as the Khetri region of Rajasthan (for copper) and south India (for gold).
These expeditions established communication with local communities. Occasional finds of Harappan artefacts such as steatite micro beads in these areas are indications of such contact. There is evidence in the Khetri area for what archaeologists call the Ganeshwar-Jodhpura culture, with its distinctive non-Harappan pottery and an unusual wealth of copper objects.
4. Consider following statements about the social system of Indus Valley Civilization:
I. There was no caste system in Indus Valley Civilization but society was divided based on the occupation and work
II. There was caste system in Indus Valley Civilization and society was divided based on the caste.
III. Society was Matriarchal
Which of above statement is / are correct?
a. I Only
b. II and III
c. III Only
d. I and III
Much evidence is available to understand the social life of the Harappans. The dress of both men and women consisted of two pieces of cloth, one upper garment and the other lower garment. Beads were worn by men and women. Jewelleries such as bangles, bracelets, fillets, girdles, anklets, ear-rings and finger rings were worn by women. These ornaments were made of gold, silver, copper, bronze and semi precious stones. The use of cosmetics was common.
Various household articles made of pottery; stone, shells, ivory and metal have been found at Mohenjodaro. Spindles, needles, combs, fishhooks, knives are made of copper. Children’s toys include little clay carts. Marbles, balls and dice were used for games. Fishing was a regular occupation while hunting and bull fighting were other pastimes. There were numerous specimens of weapons of war such as axes, spearheads, daggers, bows, arrows made of copper and bronze.
5. Which of the following is correct about Indus Valley Civilisation?
1. The cities were planned
2. Non- standardized weights were used
3. There was elaborate water drainage system
Select using following codes:
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. 1 and 3 only
d. 3 only
Indus valley civilization is known for its city planning, extensive drainage system, grid pattern of settlements, sophisticated system of waste disposal, etc. Besides, standard weights are seen to have been used throughout the region. The weights that have been recovered have shown a remarkable accuracy.
6. At which of the following Indus Valley Civilization yarns of spun cotton have been found?
Mohenjodaro is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Important archaeological findings of Mohenjodaro include Great Bath, Dancing Girl, Yarns of spun cotton, etc.
7. Which of the following deity was not worshipped in Indus valley civilization?
b. Peepal tree
d. Mother goddess
Archaeological evidences from Indus Valley Civilisation such as seals and figurines suggest that people worshipped Peepal tree, Neem tree, Pashupati , Mother Goddess, animals like bull and buffalo. Evidence of worshipping of Vishnu has not been found.
8. The most common motif found on the seals of Indus Valley Civilisation is
Unicorn is the most common motif found on the seals of Indus Valley civilization. It is a mythological animal and is also depicted in other cultures.
Attempts have also been made to reconstruct religious beliefs and practices by examining seals, some of which seem to depict ritual scenes. Others, with plant motifs, are thought to indicate nature worship. Some animals – such as the one-horned animal, often called the “unicorn” – depicted on seals seem to be mythical, composite creatures. In some seals, a figure shown seated cross-legged in a “yogic” posture, sometimes surrounded by animals, has been regarded as a depiction of “proto-Shiva”, that is, an early form of one of the major deities of Hinduism. Besides, conical stone objects have been classified as lingas.
9. With reference to the Indus valley civilization consider the following statements:
1. Cities were usually divided into two or more parts. The part to the East was smaller but higher. Archaeologists describe this as the citadel. The part to the west was larger but lower. This is called the lower town.
2. In some cities, special buildings were constructed on the citadel. For example, in Mohenjodaro, a very special tank, which archaeologists call the Great Bath, was built in this area.
3. Cities such as Kalibangan and Lothal had fire altars, where sacrifices may have been performed. And some cities like Mohenjodaro, Harappa, and Lothal had elaborate store houses.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
1 and 2 only
2 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3
1 and 3 only
Perhaps the most unique feature of the Harappan civilisation was the development of urban centres. Let us look at one such centre, Mohenjodaro, more closely. Although Mohenjodaro is the most well-known site, the first site to be discovered was Harappa. The settlement is divided into two sections, one smaller but higher and the other much larger but lower. Archaeologists designate these as the Citadel and the Lower Town respectively. The Citadel owes its height to the fact that buildings were constructed on mud brick platforms. It was walled, which meant that it was physically separated from the Lower Town.
The Lower Town was also walled. Several buildings were built on platforms, which served as foundations. It has been calculated that if one labourer moved roughly a cubic metre of earth daily, just to put the foundations in place it would have required four million person-days, in other words, mobilising labour on a very large scale.