Image Source: NCERT textbook for Class 12 Biology, Chapter 4: Reproductive Health
NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology, Chapter 4: Reproductive Health are available here. Total 12 questions are given at the end of this chapter of NCERT textbook. Detailed solutions of all the 12 questions this chapter are given below. These solutions are important for CBSE Class 12 Biology board exam 2018.
You can also download the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Biology, Chapter 4: Reproductive Health with the help of download link given at the end of this article. This chapter is also important competitive examinations like NEET.
Question1. What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?
A reproductive healthy society should have people possess physically and functionally normal reproductive organs with normal emotional and behavioural interactions between them in all sex-related aspects. Indian government has started many plans like family planning and RCH to attain total reproductive health. Professional experts, strong infrastructural facilities and materials are also provided to them. Even non-govt. Organisation helps them to provide guidance and medical assistance to people suffering from reproduction related problems.
Question2. Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.
To deal with the welfare of society in all aspects of reproduction, Reproductive health is a collective term. It includes spreading of proper information about reproductive organs, STDs, AIDS etc. Education about different kinds of birth control options, taking care of pregnant lady, post natal care for child and mother as well.
Question3. Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
India has a large population of young individuals. They are from teenagers to early adulthood. Parents and other close relatives plays very important role in providing right information. Sex education must be introduce to schools to make them aware about sex related problems and changes that they undergo in their teen ages.
Question4. Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.
Yes. India has taken some serious steps to improve reproductive health in the country. Programmes such as family planning started in 1951. Govt. Together with certain NGOs are creating awareness about reproductive health through audio-visual aids and print media RCH and CDRI had also been started in India. To stop female foeticides, amniocenteses have been banned in India.
Question5. What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?
Population of world is increasing very rapidly specially in developing countries which are a very serious issue. There are various reasons responsible for it. Quality of life is improved, medical facilities have increased, death rate and MMR have decreased rapidly. Illiteracy is also an important role for population growth.
Question6. Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.
Uncontrolled growth in population is one of the major problems of world. Developing countries are having a major threat with population growth. Growing population will make scarcity of basic needs such as food, shelter etc. Govt. Is taking steps to control population and educating people about harmful results of over-population. Various methods of contraceptive methods are available today which is very easy, safe, cost effective and without any side effects. Fertile couples can use contraceptive methods to control population.
Question7. Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why?
As we know gonads produces gametes and by the removal of gonads we can stop the production of gametes but still it is not a good idea to remove healthy organs from our body as it will create physiological and psychological complications in the body.
Question8. Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary?
Amniocentesis is a process which was used to find any kind of abnormalities in foetus. But, this technique was misused to find sex of child. Some parents abort their children when they come to know that the foetus is a female child.
Question9. Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.
Infertility is the inability of the couple to produce their young one even after unprotected sex. There can be various reasons for infertility like physical, diseases, drugs, immunological etc in the couple. There are infertility clinics which provide correct treatment to infertile couples. Some of the methods of treatment are as follows
(a) Various ART (assisted reproductive technologies) methods are practiced these days. IVF (In-vitro fertilization) is very common which is followed by ET (embryo transfer).This process is also known as test tube baby programme.
(b) GIFT – Gamete intra fallopian transfer, n this process embryo from in-vivo fertilization are transferred to recipient female.
(c) AI – Artificial insemination, this process is used when sperm count of partner is very low.
(d) ICSI – Intra cytoplasm sperm injection, in this process sperm is directly injected into the ovum.
Question10. What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs?
Diseases that are transmitted sexually are called STDs. E.g. AIDS, Gonorrhoea etc. Itching, slight pain, swelling in the genital organs is the early symptoms of STDs. They can harm a lot if not treated on time. To prevent us from STDs we should always use condoms and must avoid with sex with unknown partner or multiple partners. We should maintain a sex hygiene and must consult a physician if any of the above symptoms are found.
Question11. State True/False with explanation
(a) Abortions could happen spontaneously too. (True/False)
(b) Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner. (True/False)
(c) Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception. (True/False)
(d) Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people. (True/False)
(a) False. Process of medical termination of pregnancy is called abortion.
(b) False. Male partner could also be responsible for infertility.
(c) True. During complete lactation, no ovulation takes place so no menstrual cycle and no chances of fertilization.
(d) True. Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people.
Question12. Correct the following statements:
(a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
(b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women.
(d) In E. T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
(a) Surgical methods of contraception are a permanent means of contraception. This method prevents the transports of gametes during intercourse.
(b) Except a few diseases like AIDS, most STDs are curable if detected on time.
(c) These oral pills are very popular among urban women.
(d) In ET technique, embryo of more than 8 blastomere stage is transferred to uterus or it can be transferred to fallopian tubes if embryo is less than 8 blastomere stage.