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GS Economy Questions for IAS Exam - Agriculture

Sep 12, 2016 18:12 IST

    From UPSC IAS Examination point of view, the Questions based on Indian Economy are very important. The UPSC IAS Exam aspirants must be aware of the every perspective of Indian Economy either it is historical perspective or current perspective.


    For the Civil Services aspirants, here, we have developed Multiple Choice Questions for the UPSC IAS Prelims Exam based on Ramesh Singh’s Indian Economy book, one of the most important books available for UPSC IAS Exam.

    1.    Consider the following statements regarding special features of Indian Agriculture:
    I.    Over 58 per cent of the rural households depend on agriculture as their principal means of livelihood.
    II.    The share of agriculture has been falling in the country’s gross income while industrial and services sectors’ shares have been on a rise constantly.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    Only II
    c.    Both I and II
    d.    Neither I nor II

    Answer: c

    Explanation:


    From monetary point of view the share of agriculture sector in the economy remains at 14.1 per cent of the GDP. In the fiscal 1950–51 agriculture accounted for 55.4 per cent in the GDP.

    The share of agriculture has been falling in the country’s gross income while industrial and services sectors’ shares have been on a rise constantly. But from the livelihood point of view

    Still 58.2 per cent people of India depend on agriculture sector. This makes it a more important sector than the industry and the services (for Nepal and Tanzania the dependency for livelihood on agriculture is still higher at 93 per cent and 81 per cent, respectively). It means that 58.2 per cent of the population lives with only 13.9 per cent of the total income of the Indian economy—this fact clearly substantiates the reason why the people who depend on agriculture are poor.

    In the developed economies such as the USA, France, Norway, the UK and Japan, agriculture contributes only 2 per cent of their GDP with only 2 per cent people dependent on this sector for their livelihood.

    2.    Which of the following sectors of Indian Economy accounts for biggest unorganised sector of the economy?
    a.    Industrial sector
    b.    Agriculture sector
    c.    Services sector
    d.    Manufacturing sector

    Answer: b

    Explanation:


    Agriculture sector is the biggest unorganised sector of the economy accounting for more than 90 per cent share in the total unorganised labour-force (93 per cent of the total labour force of the economy i.e. 39.7 crores, is employed in the unorganised sector).

    GS Economy Questions: Inflation and Business Cycle Set III

    3.    Consider the following statements regarding the cropping seasons in India:
    I.    The Indian cropping season is classified into two main seasons based on monsoon i.e. Kharif and Rabi.
    II.    The kharif cropping season is from July to October during the South-West/Summer Monsoon.
    III.    Rabi cropping season is from October to March (Nort/East/Returning/Winter Monsoon).

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    Only II and III
    c.    Only I and II
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    There are certain special terms used to understand the cropping seasons of India. The agricultural crop year in India is from July to June. The Indian cropping season is classified into two main seasons- (i) Kharif and (ii) Rabi based on the monsoon.

    The kharif cropping season is from July to October during the South-West/Summer Monsoon and the Rabi cropping season is from October to March (Nort/East/Returning/Winter Monsoon). The crops grown between March and June are summer crops, known as the jayads.

    Pakistan and Bangladesh are two other countries that are using the term ‘kharif’ and ‘rabi’ to describe about their cropping patterns. The terms ‘kharif’ and ‘rabi’ originate from Arabic language where Kharif means autumn and Rabi means spring.

    The kharif crops include rice, maize, sorghum, pearl millet/bajra, finger millet/ragi (cereals), arhar (pulses), soyabean, groundnut (oilseeds), cotton etc. The rabi crops include wheat, barley, oats (cereals), chickpea/gram (pulses), linseed, mustard (oilseeds) etc.

    4.    ‘Blue Revolution’ is associated with which of the following?
    a.    umbrella scheme for integrated development and management of fisheries in India
    b.    umbrella scheme for integrated development and management of green cover in India
    c.    umbrella scheme for integrated development and management of mining and quarrying in India
    d.    umbrella scheme for integrated development and management of water bodies in India

    Answer: a

    Explanation:


    The ‘Blue Revolution’ is an umbrella scheme for integrated development and management of fisheries by Government of India, with total financial outlay of Rs 3,000 crore (US$ 440.15 million) for a period of five years.

    The new 'Blue Revolution' policy will cover development and management of inland fisheries, aquaculture, marine fisheries including deep sea fishing and all activities undertaken by the National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) towards realising a 'Blue Revolution' in the country.

    5.    Consider the following statements regarding the objectives of land reforms after getting independence in 1947:
    I.    Removing institutional discrepancies of the agrarian structure inherited from the past which obstructed increasing agricultural production.
    II.    To minimise the growing socio-economic inequality in the country.
    III.    To increase the agricultural production for solving the inter-related problems of poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    Only II and III
    c.    Only I and II
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Following were the objectives of land reforms after getting independence in 1947:

    (i)    Removing institutional discrepancies of the agrarian structure inherited from the past which obstructed increasing agricultural production such as—the size of agricultural holding, land ownership, land inheritance, tenancy reforms, abolition of intermediaries, introduction of modern institutional factors to agriculture, etc.

    (ii)    The other objective of the land reforms in India was related to the issue of socio-economic inequality in the country. The high level inequality in land ownership had not only its negative economic impact on the economy but it was badly intertwined with caste system of India and the allocation of social prestige and status by the society at large. More than 80 per cent of the population from its livelihood inherited the agrarian system which had inequitable ownership of the asset i.e. land to earn income. The government wanted to go for a restructuring of the land ownership in the economy on the logical grounds and with public welfare approach. This objective of the land reforms got enough socio-political attention as it tried to dismantle the age-old agrarian structure in the country. It became such a hot issue that land reforms in India got a ‘bad-name’, synonymous to land-grabbing by the government and allotting them to the landless masses.

    (iii)    The third objective of the land reforms in India was highly contemporary in nature which did not get enough socio-political attention—it was the objective of increasing agricultural production for solving the inter-related problems of poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity.

    6.    In order to realise the objectives of land reforms the Indian government took which of the following step(s):
    a.    Abolition of intermediaries
    b.    Tenancy reforms
    c.    Reorganisation of agriculture
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:


    In order to realise the objectives of land reforms the Indian government took the following three major steps:
    (i)    Abolition of intermediaries: Under this step, the age-old exploitative land tenure systems of the Zamindari, Mahalwari and Ryotwari were fully abolished.
    (ii)    Tenancy reforms: Under this broader step, three inter-related reforms protecting the land tenants were effected:
    •    Regulation of rent so that a fixed and rational rate of rent could be paid by the share-croppers to the land owners;
    •    Security of tenure so that a share-cropper could be feel secure about his future income and his economic security; and
    •    Ownership rights to tenants so that the landless masses (i.e. the tenants, the share-croppers) could be transferred the final rights for the land they plough - “land to the tillers”.
    (iii)    Reorganisation of Agriculture: This step again has many inter-related and highly logical provisions in the direction of rational agrarian reforms:
    •    Redistribution of land among the landless poor masses after promulgating timely ceiling laws—the move failed badly with few exceptions such as W. Bengal, Kerala and partially in Andhra Pradesh.
    •    Consolidation of land could only succeed in the regions of the Green Revolution (i.e., Haryana, Punjab and Western Uttar Pradesh) and remained marred with many loopholes and corruption.
    •    Cooperative farming which has a high socioeconomic moral base was only used by the big farmers to save their lands from the draconian ceiling laws.

    7.    Once the Government launched the Green Revolution, the issue of land reforms almost got marginalised due to which of the following reasons:
    I.    There is an inherent diabolic relationship between the Green Revolution and the land reforms as the former suits to bigger and economic land holdings the latter intended to fragment the land among a large number of the masses.
    II.    The LR was socially opposed by the land-owning caste lobbies while there was no such opposition to the Green Revolution.
    III.    The subsidised supplies of food grains under PL480 were hampering India from carving out its independent diplomacy.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    Only II and III
    c.    Only I and II
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Once the Government launched the Green Revolution, the issue of land reforms almost got marginalised due to the following reasons:
    (i) There is an inherent diabolic relationship between the Green Revolution and the LR as the former suits to bigger and economic land holdings the latter intended to fragment the land among a large number of the masses.
    (ii) The land reform was socially opposed by the land-owning caste lobbies while there was no such opposition to the Green Revolution.
    (iii) The level of legislative attempts taken by the governments regarding the land reforms till date had almost no positive socioeconomic impact on the country while the Green Reform was having all potential of proving higher yields of the food grains.
    (iv) The subsidised supplies of food grains under PL480 were hampering India from carving out its independent diplomacy, as well as there has always remained a doubt about the regular supplies of wheat.
    (v) International pressure as well as the suggestions from the World Bank besides the success stories of the Green Revolution from the countries where it had increased the yield of wheat.

    8.    Consider the following statements regarding agriculture holdings in India:
    I.    In Indian Economic holding which ensures a minimum satisfactory standard of living to a family. In other words, economic holding is a minimum essential area for profitable agriculture.
    II.    Family holding is that holding which gives work to average size family having one plough under traditional farming system.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    Only II
    c.    Both I and II
    d.    Neither I nor II

    Answer: c

    Explanation:


    In Agricultural holdings have been classified into three categories:

    (i)    Economic Holding: It is that holding which ensures a minimum satisfactory standard of living to a family. In other words, economic holding is a minimum essential area for profitable agriculture.

    (ii)    Family Holding: Family holding is that holding which gives work to average size family having one plough under traditional farming system. In other words, family holding is a ‘plough unit’ which is neither less nor more for an average size family to cultivate it properly.

    (iii)    Optimum Holding: Maximum size of the holding which must be possessed and owned by a family is called optimum holding.

    9.    The Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Computerisation of Land Records (CLR) was started in which of the following year?

    a.    1981-82
    b.    1985-86
    c.    1988-89
    d.    1991-92

    Answer: c

    Explanation:


    Two Centrally Sponsored Schemes viz. (i) Computerisation of Land Records (CLR) and (ii) Strengthening of Revenue Administration and Updating of Land Records (SRA & ULR) are being administered by Land reforms Division in the Department of Land Resources17.

    The Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Computerisation of Land Records (CLR) was started in 1988–89 with 100 per cent financial assistance as a pilot project in eight districts, viz., Rangareddy (A.P.), Sonipur (Assam), Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Gandhinagar (Gujarat), Morena (M.P.), Wardha (Maharashtra), Mayurbhanj (Orissa) and Dungarpur (Rajasthan) with a view to remove the problems inherent in the manual systems of maintenance and updating of land records and to meet the requirements of various groups of users. It was decided that efforts should be made to computerise core data contained in land records, so as to assist development planning and to make records accessible to people/planners and administrators.

    10.    Which of following is not true regarding India’s first Green Revolution:
    a.    It is the introduction of new techniques of agriculture which became popular by the name of the Green Revolution (GR) around the world in early 1960s.
    b.    It revolutionised the very traditional idea of food production by giving a boost by more than 250 per cent to the productivity level.
    c.    The Green Revolution was centred on the use of the Genetically Modified variety (GMV) of seeds developed by the US agro-scientist Norman Borlaug doing research on a British Rockfellor Foundation Scholarship in Mexico by the early 1960s.
    d.    By 1965, the seeds were successfully tested and were being used by farmers in food deficient countries such as Mexico, Taiwan.

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    It is the introduction of new techniques of agriculture which became popular by the name of the Green Revolution (GR) around the world in early 1960s—at first for wheat and by the next decade for rice, too. It revolutionised the very traditional idea of food production by giving a boost by more than 250 per cent to the productivity level. The Green Revolution was centred around the use of the High Yielding variety (HYV) of seeds developed by the US agro-scientist Norman Borlaug doing research on a British Rockfellor Foundation Scholarship in Mexico by the early 1960s.

    The new wheat seeds which he developed in vivo claimed to increase its productivity by more than 200 per cent. By 1965, the seeds were successfully tested and were being used by farmers in food deficient countries such as Mexico, Taiwan.

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