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• Intravenous injections are alwaysdissolved in water containing salts at particular ionicconcentrations. Reason

• The technical definition of solution

• Types of solutions and example of emulsion

• When concentration of a solution is expressed in terms Parts per million

• Definition of mole fraction and derivation of formula(unit of mole fraction)

• Numerical based on mole fraction

• Definitions of molality, molarity and normality and also the relationship among all three

• numerical based on molality, molarity and normality (units of all three)

• Calculate the molarity of a solution containing 5 g of NaOH in 450 mLsolution

• Calculate molality of 2.5 g of ethanoic acid (CH3COOH) in 75 g of benzene.

• Calculate the mole fraction of benzene in solution containing 30% bymass in carbon tetrachloride.

• Analysis of effects of temperature and pressure in case of solubility of solid in liquid and solubility of gas in liquid

• Definition of Henry’s law interms of mole fraction and partial pressure

• Higher thevalue of KH at a given pressure, the lower is the solubilityof the gas in the liquid. Justify the statement

• If N2 gas is bubbled through water at 293 K, how many millimoles of N2 gas would dissolve in 1 litre of water. Assume that N2 exerts a partial pressure of 0.987 bar. Given that Henry’s law constant for N2 at 293 K is 76.48 kbar.

• Define vapour pressure

• Raoult’s law in case of a binary solution(liquid-liquid solution) and numerical based on the formula related to the same case

• Vapour pressure of chloroform (CHCl3) and dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) at 298 K are 200 mm Hg and 415 mm Hg respectively. (i) Calculatethe vapour pressure of the solution prepared by mixing 25.5 g ofCHCl3 and 40 g of CH2Cl2 at 298 K and, (ii) mole fractions of eachcomponent in vapour phase.

• Describe the situation when Raoult’s law becomesa special case of Henry’s law

• What type of solution can be classified into ideal and non ideal solution?

• Definition and important properties of ideal and non ideal solution

• The intermolecular attractive forces between the A-A and B-B arenearly equal to those between A-B, then identify the type of solution(ideal / non ideal)

• Examples of some combination of solution which comes under the ideal and non ideal solution

• If deviation from the Raoult’s law is +ve ,then identify the type of solution

• When a solution is said to be azeotrope?

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• Define the term colligative property and discuss all the colligative properties in detail

• Kb is called Boiling PointElevation Constant or Molal Elevation Constant (EbullioscopicConstant). What is the unit of Kb?

• Kf, which depends on the nature of thesolvent is known as Freezing Point Depression Constant or Molal Depression Constant or Cryoscopic Constant.what is the unit of Kf

• Define osmosis and osmotic pressure

• What is reverse osmosis

• Derive the relation between osmotic pressure, molarity and concentration of the solution at a given temperature.

• What is edema?

• Boiling point of water at 750 mm Hg is 99.63°C. How much sucrose is tobe added to 500 g of water such that it boils at 100°C.

• Concept of abnormal molar mass and introduction of Van’t Hoff factor

• Relation between Kb, Kf, and osmotic pressure with Van’t Hoff factor

• If the solubility product of CuS is 6 × 10–16, calculate the maximum molarity ofCuS in aqueous solution.

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