World Economic Forum (WEF) on 28 October 2014 released the Global Gender Gap Report 2014. The 2014 report provides Gender Gap scores for 142 countries compared to 136 countries included in 2013 report.
In the Report, India with a score of 0.646 has been ranked 114. In 2013, India was ranked 101 out of 136 countries.
Further Benin and Cameroon have been removed from the Report in 2014 and eight new countries have been included. These eight new countries are Belarus, Tunisia and Zimbabwe (re-entered the rankings) and Guinea, Liberia, Montenegro, Rwanda and Swaziland entered for the first time.
Main Highlights of the Global Gender Gap Report 2014
There has been small improvement in gender parity in the workplace since 2006 when the first Global Gender Gap report was published
• At this rate it will take it will take 81 years for the world to close this gap completely.
• No country in the world has fully closed the gender gap, but all five of the Nordic countries have closed more than 80 percent of it.
• Eight countries—Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, France, Guyana, Latvia, Namibia, and the Philippines—have fully closed the gap on both the health and education subindexes, no country has closed either the economic participation gap or the political empowerment gap.
• 142 countries covered in the Report have closed almost 96 percent of the gap in health outcomes between women and men and almost 94 percent of the gap in Educational Attainment.
• The gap between women and men on economic participation and political empowerment remains wide: only 60 percent of the economic outcomes gap and only 21 percent of the political outcomes gap has been closed.
Top ten gender-equal societies in the world
Top 10 ranked countries with most gender-equal societies in the world are Iceland (1), Finland (2), Norway (3) and Sweden (4) Denmark (5), Nicaragua (devil), Rwanda (7), Ireland (music), Philippines (9) and Belgium (10).
Performance of countries by Subindex
• In 2014, 25 countries have fully closed the gap in Educational Attainment subindex (same as in 2013).
• Angola, Ethiopia, Yemen, Guinea and Chad hold the last five spots on this subindex, with Yemen and Chad having closed less than 70 percent of their education gender gap.
• In total, there are 22 countries where women still have less than 90 percent of the education outcomes that men have.
• Twenty-nine countries are below world average (weighted by population) on that subindex.
Health and Survival
• 35 countries have fully closed the gap in Health and Survival subindex.
• Vietnam, Albania, China, India and Armenia are the lowest-ranking countries and no country currently has a gap bigger than 90 percent on this subindex.
• Only 9 countries are below world average (weighted by population) on that subindex.
Economic Participation and Opportunity
• 14 countries have closed more than 80 percent of gap, including from from Sub-Saharan Africa and five from Europe and Central Asia.
• Burundi, Norway, Malawi, the United States and the Bahamas occupy the top five spots on this subindex.
• Yemen, Iran, Jordan, Pakistan and Syria hold the last five spots on this subindex.
• Thirty-four countries are below world average (weighted by population) on that subindex.
• Only Iceland and Finland have closed more than 60% of the gender gap.
• 37 countries have closed less than 10 percent of the political empowerment gender gap.
• Yemen, Oman, Qatar, Lebanon and Brunei Darussalam have the lowest rankings on this subindex
• 98 countries are below world average (weighted by population) on that subindex, including Brunei Darussalam, which has a score of zero.
Performance of countries by Region
Asia and the Pacific
• In 2014, 7 out of the 24 countries from Asia and the Pacific have closed over 70 percent of the gap, with the Philippines, New Zealand and Australia in the lead.
• At the bottom ends of the rankings two countries from the region—Iran and Pakistan—have closed less than 60 percent of the gender gap.
Latin America and the Caribbean
• In Latin America and the Caribbean, 14 of the 26 countries in the region have closed over 70 percent of the gender gap.
• Nicaragua, Ecuador and Cuba occupy the top three spots. The lowest ranking country in the region—Suriname—has closed a little over 65 percent of its gender gap.
Middle East and North Africa
In the Middle East and North Africa region, only Israel has closed over 70 percent of the gender gap, while five countries have closed less than 60 percent of the gender gap.
Canada and the United States have both closed nearly 75 percent of the gender gap.
In Sub-Saharan Africa, out of 28 countries covered, 13 have closed over 70 percent of the gender gap, with Rwanda, Burundi and South Africa in the lead, while three countries have closed less than 60 percent of the gap.
Europe and Central Asia
In Europe and Central Asia, out of 46 countries, five countries have closed over 80 percent of the gap, while 18 countries have closed less than 70 percent.
India’s performance in 2014
• In 2014 Global Gender Gap Report, India has been ranked 114 with a score of 0.646 registering a steady improvement of its overall score since 2010. However, there has been slight drop in 2014 due to a drop in scores on the Economic Participation and Opportunity and Educational Attainment subindexes.
• Since 2006, India has experienced the largest decrease (in absolute and relative value) on its Health and Survival subindex score because of an important drop in its Sex ratio at birth score.
• In 2014, India is below average on three subindexes: Economic Participation and Opportunity, Educational Attainment and Health and Survival. In fact, it is the second-lowest performing country on Health and Survival, just ahead of Armenia.
• India is among the top twenty best-performing countries on the Political Empowerment subindex.
• India is part of the twenty worst-performing countries on the Labour force participation, Estimated earned income, Literacy rate and Sex ratio at birth indicators.
• India is the highest-ranked country on the Years with female head of state (over the past 50 years) indicator.
• India has the highest difference between women and men on the average minutes spent per day on unpaid work—a difference of 300 minutes.
• It is also among the countries with the highest difference in the female and male percentage of total R&D personnel (FTE).
• India has one of the lowest percentages of firms with female participation in ownership.
India and BRICS Countries
India at 114 when compared to other BRICS nation is the lowest ranked and the highest ranked country in the group is South Africa at 18th place. In fact, South Africa has been among the top 20 performing countries in the overall Index since 2006.
The ranks of other BRICS nation is Brazil (71), Russia (75) and China (87).
India and SAARC Countries
The ranks of SAARC Countries in ascending order are: Bangladesh (68); Sri Lanka (79); Maldives (105); Nepal (112); India (114); Bhutan (120) and Pakistan (141).
Global Gender Gap Index
The Global Gender Gap Index was first published by World Economic Forum (WEF) in 2006. The 2014 Report was the 9th edition. The index seeks to measure one important aspect of gender equality: the relative gaps between women and men across four key areas: health, education, economy and politics.
Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex and Political Empowerment subindex display the full scale of 0.00 to 1.00 while the figures for the Health and Survival and Educational Attainment subindexes display the scale only from 0.50 to 1.00 for improving visual clarity.
There are three basic concepts underlying the Global Gender Gap Index, forming the basis of the choice of indicators, how the data is treated and the scale used. First, it focuses on measuring gaps rather than levels. Second, it captures gaps in outcome variables rather than gaps in input variables. Third, it ranks countries according to gender equality rather than women’s empowerment.
When: on 28 October 2014