Amnesty International (AI) is a non-governmental organisation formed in July 1961 by Peter Benenson (UK) with an objective to conduct research and generate action to prevent and end grave abuses of human rights, and to demand justice to those, whose rights have been violated.
It is one of the organisations which work independently without any political ideology, economic interest or religion and also no government is beyond scrutiny.
Working Domain of Amnesty International (AL)
Armed conflict: It can be triggered by issues including identity, ethnicity, religion or competition for resources. Women and children are disproportionately affected by armed conflict - they make up 80% of all refugees and displaced people. Rape and other forms of sexual violence are routinely committed during conflict. Amnesty does not take sides in conflicts but document and campaign against human rights abuses and violations of international law, no matter who commits them, or where. And, we support the survivors to demand justice.
Arms control: A global Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) became international law on 24 December 2014.The ATT means that every state that has signed-up must now obey strict rules on international arms transfers. This will at last help to stem the flow of weapons that fuel bloody conflicts, atrocities and state repression around the world. It’s rare to get a direct win that will help save thousands of lives, but after relentless lobbying and campaigning since the early-1990s, Amnesty and its partners have done exactly that. The Treaty’s rules are simple – if a country knows that the arms about to be sold will be used for genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes, then they must stop the transfer.
Corporate Responsibility: Amnesty is calls for-
• Prevention: all companies should be required by law to take steps to identify, prevent and address human rights abuses (known as due diligence).
• Accountability: companies must be held to account for abuses they commit.
• Remedy: people whose rights have been abused by companies must be able to access justice and effective remedy.
• Protect rights beyond borders: companies operate across borders, so the law must also operate across borders to protect people’s rights.
DEATH PENALTY: It is cruel, inhuman and degrading. Amnesty opposes the death penalty at all times - regardless of who is accused, the crime, guilt or innocence or methodof execution. Amnesty working to end executions since 1977, when only 16 countries had abolished the death penalty in law or practice. Today, the number has risen to 140 - nearly two-thirds of countries around the world.
Detention and imprisonment: Amnesty is calling for-
• No secret detentions.
• No torture or other forms of ill-treatment.
• Rapid and regular access to lawyers, doctors and relatives.
• Effective legal process so that people can challenge their detention and treatment.
• Independent judges.
• Adequate detention conditions. Including an end to prolonged solitary confinement.
• Prompt and independent investigations when someone dies in detention.
• Independent Monitoring bodies make regular visits to detention places.
• Fair trials within a reasonable time or release.
• All prisoners of conscience released without conditions.
Disappearances: If governments genuinely don’t know where people are being held, they need to make more effort to find out. If they do, they must release them, or provide details of where they died then Amnesty work for it.
Discrimination: Amnesty’s work is rooted in the principle of non-discrimination. Working with disadvantaged communities across the world we work to change discriminatory laws and protect people. Sometimes these victories are bittersweet; such as when the Moroccan parliament changed its discriminatory rape law in 2014, meaning rapists can no longer escape punishment by forcing their victims to marry them.
Freedom of expression: Governments pay lip service to ‘free speech’ in almost every constitution in the world, but the reality isn't so free. Across the world people are thrown into prison – or worse – for speaking out. If human right to seek, receive and share information and ideas, without fear or unlawful interference, is crucial for our education, to develop as individuals, help our communities, access justice, and enjoy all our other rights. Since Amnesty began supported and protected people who speak out – for themselves and for others. It work with journalists, community workers and teachers, trade unionists, people promoting reproductive rights and indigenous people standing up for their land rights.
Indigenous peoples: Amnesty works with Indigenous Peoples to develop urgently needed laws to protect their lands, cultures and livelihoods. At the international level, Indigenous Peoples have made their voices heard and effectively lobbied governments.
International justice: There must be no safe havens, Hence Amnesty work against to those who commit the worst crimes imaginable, can no longer hide.