Arab conquest of Sindh
From the ancient times, India was famous as the fanatical land and was called golden sparrow. Its wealth and huge population always attracted foreigners. Although the Arabs did not rule for a very long time yet they are called the bridge connectors for India and rest of the world, mainly Europe. Arab’s were conquering the world, starting from Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Persia while India was struggling with the unstable kingdom of Hindu’s. Harshvardan was the last Hindu emperor and his death brought political instability in India. Islam had already set their foot in India by then. So Arabs’s decided to enter into Sind, one of the prosperous states of India at that time. As a result, an Islamic region of Sind was established and today also it is one of the main Islamic centres.
Effects of the Conquest of Sindh
- Religious Changes: Islam was established in Sind and Multan. The attempt failed as Rajput’s had a strong position in North. Initially, after the death of Muhammad bin Qasim, the Khalifah were shaken and the Islamic propagation was declined. The alliances made by Muhammad Bin Qasim proved to be fruitful in later invasion of Islamic rulers. The views on Islam were changed as Arabs were not cruel. No extra taxes were imposed on Hindus for believing in Hinduism which won their hearts and they embraced the Arabs with the open arms.
- Political and Social impact on India: The poor management of the Hindu rulers and their weak army strengths were in front of the world which developed the interest of Arabs to occupy the entire India. The Arabs opened the way of communication with the other Islamic regions and thus the direct trade and business with the Islamic countries started (should be added or not). The Sind area which was considered to be tribal before Arab invasion became economically strong and civilized. The law and order of the Arabs changed the social status of the region. The Arabs were great politicians. They believed in winning the mind of people rather than acquiring land. The social reforms took place during this time as the peaceful administration was set whereas other parts of India were highly disturbed. The disunity of Hindu Rajas proved to be the bigger spring bolt to bring the change in the area. The common people were fed up with internal fights and they had no respect for the Rajput’s empire.
- Economical and cultural developments: The Arabs adopted the policy of toleration and allowed Hindus to follow their religion. The Arabs adopted the rich rituals of Brahmins and gained knowledge in the areas of Astrology, Medicine and Arthashastra. Many of the Sanskrit words were added in Arab dictionaries. The small areas were converted in cities. The Arabs did town planning according to the crop of that particular area and set up business accordingly. This improved the economical conditions of the Sind Region. For trade horses and camels were brought from other areas which later on became a mean of carrying goods from Sind to other countries.
- The settlement of Arabs: Many of the Arab soldiers married Sindhi women and got settled in Sind. This increased the population of the region. The Arabs started treating Sind as their own land and tried to develop the area in all the spheres. The good buildings and planning of cities left a significant impact on the Indian culture which was reflected later on. The Arabs were great poets. They believed in the development of new languages which gave birth to Sindhi language (a mixture of Arab and Sanskrit language). The poetry written in Sindhi is famous till date. It given birth too many famous poets. The great Quran was translated in Arabian language.
Invasion of Sind by Muhammad-bin-Qasim (695-715 AD)
A17 years old boy was ambitious, a great warrior, courageous. He was born and brought up in the Taif now in Saudi Arabia. He invaded Sind and Multan area. This is a historical win which has its impact on the history of world. He was not a cruel king. He wanted to establish a territory based on rich culture and civilization. He proved to be good administrator. His romance stories led many poets to write great poetry in Arabian language which is called Sindhi heritage.
When he became powerful the Khalifah’s could not digest his success and they arrested him against the false charges. He was taken back to Arab where he was killed. People of Sind worshiped his statues. But the caliph’s were not liberal, so they could not rule for a long time.
The Arab invasion in Sind region was a great historical moment which brought social and economic development in the tribal region of Sind. The law and order was established. Peace and culture was developed. Education was spread. Trade with the Arab countries was set .The people of Sind adopted Islamic culture. Their belief that the Islam only believes in cruelty changed and the Islam was spread. The Brahmins were given respect and they were free to follow Hinduism. They repaired some Hindu temples which were destroyed in Islamic Invasion. Thus the Hindus developed respect for the Arabs. Hinduism and Islamic culture was followed side by side and the two religions had healthy exchanges of culture. A mix culture was spread which was known as Sindhi Culture. It has impact on the coming times. This period was not for a very long time. It ended with the death of Muhammad Bin Qasim but The Sind area had great benefits during this time.