Sustainable agriculture is a type of agriculture that focuses on producing long-term crops and livestock without harming the environment. In other words, it is a techniques and method that protect the environment, public health, human communities and animal welfare while producing food, fibre, or plant or animal products. It is new term for building agricultural practices more inclined towards nature and human because it enables us to produce healthful food without compromising future generations’ ability to the same.
This form of agriculture moving around three main components or goals—environmental health, economic profitability, and social and economic equality. The list of the various methods and techniques which are used in sustainable agriculture are given below:
This technique or method of farming prevents soil erosion such as reduced crop productivity, worsened water quality, lower an effective reservoir water levels, flooding and habitat destruction. It is different from terrace farming because in terracing wide steps are cut around the slopes.
In this technique or method, the ruts are perpendicular rather than slopes made by the plough, generally resulting in furrows that curve around the land and are level.
It is also known as zero tillage or direct drilling farming, is a way of growing crops or pasture from year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage.
It is an agricultural technique or which increases the amount of water that infiltrates into the soil and increases organic matter retention and cycling of nutrients in the soil.
In many agricultural regions, it can eliminate soil erosion. It increases the amount and variety of life in and on the soil, including disease causing organisms and disease suppression organisms. The most powerful benefit of no-tillage is improvement in soil biological fertility, making soils more of resilient.
3. Drip Irrigation
It is also known as trickle irrigation or micro irrigation. In this method, water is irrigated to the roots of the plants by dripping, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing and emitters.
It is an integrated approach of using the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops. It combines agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. It has a lot in common with intercropping. Both have two or more plant species (such as nitrogen-fixing plants) in close interaction. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of United nations (FAO) recognises seven major challenges and obstacles of agroforestary:
(1) Delayed return on investmen
(2) Under-developed markets
(3) Emphasis on commercial agriculture
(4) Limited awareness of the advantages of agroforestry
(5) Unclear status of land and tree resources
(6) Adverse regulations
(7) Lack of coordination between sectors