Nasin al Din Muḥammad (Humayun)

Humayun was born on 27th January 1508. After Babur's death, he ascended the throne of Mughal Empire. Quickly after his accession, Humayun gained various enemies like Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, Sher Khan of Bihar. At last he was expelled by Sher Khan. Humayun fled to Persia and took political shelter there. He then recaptured his position in Delhi in 1555 after the breaking down of the Pathans. Yet, of his ill luck, he died in 1556, due to an accident.
Sep 8, 2015 18:01 IST
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He was the second Mughal emperor of India and was explorer. He was the successor of Babur. He did not have the military ability and political knowledge as his father.

He had the knowledge of languages such as Turki, Arabic and Persian, in spite of the fact that he didn't have any scholarly interest, yet he learnt Hindi after conquest of northern India by Babur.

His Difficulties

Emperor Humayun's progression to the throne was postpone to four days, for the duration of which attempts were made to set aside his case and place Mahdi Khwaja who was the brother in law of Humayun,  on the throne.

Prime minister Nizam-ud-din Muhammad Khalifa had a poor impression about the working style of Humayun, so he wanted Mahdi Khwaja, to get the throne, moreover there was no unity in the royal family and Humayun's cousins Muhammad Zaman and Muhammad Sultan wanted to set aside Humayun and get the throne.

Among the Muslims, the theory of primogeniture (the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn male child to inherit the family estate, in preference to other siblings) was not entirely followed which made Humayun's three sibbling Kamran, Hindal and Askari, competitors of the throne.

Regions of Balkh, Qunduz, Badakhshan in Central Asia, and Multan, the Punjab, present day Uttar Pradesh; Bihar, Gwalior, Bayana, Dholpur and Chanderi in India was not completely reduced to accommodation and was badly organised. This prevailing condition demanded a ruler with much political wisdom, military skills and diplomacy. Humayun did not have any one of these qualities, which turn out to be one of the significant reasons for his undoing, although he was a man of scholarly taste and love of culture, but he does not had determination.

Humayun Expeditions:

  • Expectation of Kalinjar (1531): Humayun overpowered the fourth of Kalinjar in Bundelkhand, and was compelled to make peace and to acknowledge an unlimited security from the Raja.
  • Battle of Dauhariya (1532): Humayun defeated Mahmood Lodi, who was the Afghan of Bihar.
  • Siege of Chunar (1532): Humayun overpowered for fortress of Chunar under Sher Shah, who offered him nominal accommodation, which turned out to be a major mistake with respect to Humayun for acknowledge it.
  • Wars with Bahadur Shah (1535-1536): Bahadur Shah added Malwa in 1531, and caught the fourth of Raisin and defeated the Chief of Chittor in 1533.
  • Battle of Chausa (1539): Humayun's arrival was obstructed by Sher Shah; assault was deferred by the armed forces of both sides as the rain began. Leaving the Mughal military camp overwhelmed. Humayun was defeated.

Capture of Lahore:

Humayun turned into a homeless wanderer, searching for support in Marwar and Sindh.

His son, Akbar, was born in Lahore in 1542. On reaching Iran in 1544, Military aid was given to Humayun by Shah Ṭahmasp and then he went ahead in 1545 to overpower Kandahar and to grab Kabul third time from kamran, humayun's disloyal sibling, in 1550.

Humayun captured Lahore in February 1555, by taking advantage of civil wars among the ancestors of Sher Shah. After that he recovered Delhi and Agra in the month of July of same year, after defeating Sikandar Suri who was the rebel Afghan governor of the Punjab, at sirhind.

Death of Humayun:

The Mughal Emperor Humayun died on January 26, 1556.

On the evening of 24th January, 1556, King Humayun was sitting on the roof of his library of the building known as Din Panah likewise called Sher Mandal. He was conversing with his nobles and astrologers in regards to hold a durbar at the time of the appearance of the planet Venus.

At that point he heard the Muazzin's call for prayer from the neighbouring mosque. So, he had gotten up to descend the stairs, to attend the evening prayer. He slipped, tumbled down from stairs and his skull got fractured. He was then carried to the palace. On recovering consciousness he learnt that his condition was serious thus sent a message to his son, Akbar, informing him of his condition and appointing him his successor.

His body was laid to rest in Purana Quila at first, but because of attack by Hemu on Delhi and capture of Purana Qila, Humayun's body was unearthed by the escaping armed force and moved to Kalanaur in Punjab where Akbar was coroneted. His tomb remains in Delhi, where he was later buried in a grand way. 

Full Name

Nasin al-Din Muḥammad Humayun


17 March 1508, Kabul, Mughal Empire (now Afghanistan)




Maham Begum


1530 to 1540, 1555 to 1556


House of Timur



27 January 1556, at the age of 47, at Delhi, Mughal Empire

 (now India)



Humayun's Tomb, Nizamuddin East, Delhi, India