Swadeshi Movement was started against partition and got formal proclamation of the movement was on August 7, 1905 at a meeting held at the Calcutta Town hall. It was suggested by Krishan Kumar Mitra’s journal Sanjivani in AD 1905. In this movement, Swadeshi leaders appeal to Indian for boycotting of government service, courts, schools and colleges and of foreign goods, promotion of Swadeshi goods, Promotion of National Education through the establishment of national schools and colleges. Hence, it was not only political but economic movement as well.
The Swadeshi Movement was a great success. In Bengal, even the landlords joined the movement. The women and students took to picketing. Students refused using books made of foreign paper. Many leaders were imprisoned and deported like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh. Many Indian lost their job and student who took part in movement were not allowed to enter college and school premises. During the movement, singing Vande Mataram was meant to sedition. This was the first instance in which use of Indigenous goods were taken an account.
An important aspect of the Swadeshi movement was the emphasis placed on self-reliance or Atmashakti (According to Rabindra Nath Tagore). Several exclusive Indian industrial ventures, Bengal Chemical Swadeshi Stores (Opened by Acharya PC Ray), Lakshmi Cotton Mills, Mohini Mills and National Tannery were started.