United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) was created in order to respond to the firm belief of nations in 1945, forged by two world wars in less than a generation that political and economic agreements are not enough to build a lasting peace. Peace must be established on the basis of humanity’s moral and intellectual solidarity. It seeks to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. This is embodied in an international treaty called the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by UNESCO in 1972.
The Constitution of UNESCO was signed in London on 16th Nov., 1945 by 37 countries and the organisation came into force in November, 1946 with the following premix: "Since war begins in the mind of men, it is the mind of men that the defence of peace must be constructed."
It became the part of the UN system in Dec. 1946. It has dedicated aim as under:
(a) Its primary objective is to contribute by peace and security in the world.
(b) To promote collaboration among the nations through education, science, communication and culture so that universal respect for justice, rule of law, human rights and fundamental freedoms are affirmed all over the world.
Aims and Missions of UNESCO
In order to realise the aim, UNESCO has devoted itself to the following field of activities:
(a) Education: UNESCO extends various supports and promotes national projects in order to renovate educational system, thereby developing educational strategies towards a goal of life 'education for all'. It focuses in the following areas:
(b) Science: It promotes inter- national scientific co-operation and encourages scientific research with a view to improve living conditions. For this purpose, UNESCO undertakes following actions:
(c) Communication: UNESCO activates itself to promote the free flow of information, freedom of expression, press freedom, media independences and pluralism. It provides advice in order to insure the scope and charity of press, film and radio service all over the world.
(d) Culture: The UNESCO gears itself in conducting research on the luck of culture with development. It takes action to ensure conservation and protection of the world's cultural inheritance. For this purpose, it helps the states to study and preserve both the physical and non-physical heritage of their societies.
Governing Bodies of UNESCO
It determines the policies and the main lines of work of the Organization. Its duty is to set the programmes and the budget of UNESCO. It also elects the Members of the Executive Board and appoints, every four years, the Director-General. The working languages of the General Conference are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
Every two years the General Conference assigns specific tasks to the Board. Other functions stem from agreements concluded between UNESCO and the United Nations, the specialized UN agencies and other intergovernmental organizations.
The Executive Board’s fifty-eight members are elected by the General Conference. The choice of these representatives is largely a matter of the diversity of the cultures they represent, as well as their geographic origin. Skilful negotiations may be needed before a balance is reached among the different regions of the world in a way that will reflect the universality of the Organization. The Executive Board meets twice a year.
How UNESCO works?
The Bureau of Strategic Planning (BSP) is the central focal point of UNESCO for all strategic, programmatic and budgeting issues, as well as for cooperation with extra budgetary funding sources and public-private partnerships (PPPs), and it provides advice to the Director-General on all these matters.
Responsibilities of the Bureau of Strategic Planning (BSP)
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