# GS Geography Quiz for IAS Prelims – Latitudes, Longitudes and Time Zones

Sep 15, 2016 16:48 IST

Geography is scientific in its orientation and hence only the candidates having comprehensive understanding of the subject can answer all the questions of geography for the IAS Prelims Exam. Geography is so vast in its syllabus that it covers most section of the General Studies for the IAS Prelims Exam. The candidates cannot escapes or overlook the geography portion because there are various aspects of geography which enormously helps in the overall General Studies Preparations. So, its advisable to prepare geography from standard sources starting with Ncert.

Latitudes and Longitudes

Q1. Consider the following statements regarding latitudes and longitudes?

1. Longitudes are angular distance of a place from the equator.
2. Latitudes are angular distance of a place from the prime meridian.

Choose the incorrect statement(s)?

a) Only 1
b) Only 2
c)  Both 1 and 2
d) None of the above

Explanation:

Latitude of a place is measured as the angular distance of the place from the equator. All latitudes also called as parallels are concentric circles.
Equator is the largest latitude of earth dividing the earth in two equal halves. Longitude of a place is measured as the angular distance of the place from the prime meridian .Longitudes also known as meridians play a significant role in measuring the time zone of an area. 0 degree longitude is Greenwich in UK and 180 degree is the International Date Line.

Q2. Daylight saving time (DST) is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months by one hour .Why is Daylight saving time practice prevalent in many temperate countries?

1. To increase the average working hours of the employees.
2. To conserve energy by utilizing the day light and reduce evening use of incandescent lighting.
3. To compensate is variation in day length experienced from season to season.

Choose the correct statement(s)?

a) Only 1
b) 1 and 2
c) 2 and 3
d) All of the above

Explanation:

Daytime saving has nothing to do with increase working hours. The working hours remain the same but the shift becomes one hour ahead.
Daylight saving time (DST) or summer time is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months by one hour so that evening daylight lasts an hour longer i.e fully utilizing the surplus sunlight in summers while compensating the short day length in winters. Typically, regions with summer time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. People use the terms "spring forward" and "fall back" when referring to this.

Q3. Consider the following statements regarding the Standard Time Zones?

a) Every country calculates its Standard meridian as the angular distance from the Greenwich meridian.
b) Every country has only one Standard Meridian Time.
c) Indian Standard time is 5.5 hours ahead of Greenwich Meridian Time.
d) Both (a) and(c)

Explanation:

The number of time zones a country practices mostly depends on the size of the country .For example, it’s impossible for a country as huge as Russia with the area of 17.1 million km⊃2; to process on only one time zone –this might create a problem of day-night difference within the same country .So Russia has 11 time zones and USA has 6 time zones. However there are certain exceptions like china which works on only one time zone despite its size. Indian Standard Time is calculated on the basis of 82.58° E longitude and its uniform all around the country.

Q4. If the International Date Line was a straight line, which of the following islands would have experienced a two-date problem within the same time zone?

a) Wrangel Island
b) Aleutian Islands
c)  Kiribati islands
d) All of the above

Explanation:

The International Date Line is an imaginary line of longitude on the Earth’s surface located at about 180 degrees east (or west) of the Greenwich Meridian and marks the divide where the date changes by one day. It makes some deviations from the 180-degree meridian to avoid dividing countries in two, especially in the Polynesia region.
The time difference between either sides of the International Date Line is not always exactly 24 hours because of local time zone variations.
If you travel around the world, changing standard time by one hour each time you enter a new time zone, then a complete circuit would mean that you adjusted your clock or watch time by 24 hours. This would lead to a difference of one day between the date on your clock and the real calendar date. To avoid this, countries are on either side of the International Date Line which runs down the middle of the Pacific Ocean. If you cross the date line moving east, you subtract a day, whereas if you are moving west you add a day.

Q5. A significant variation is seen in the length of day night time from season to season .what among the below statements is the most appropriate reason of this variation?

a) Earth’s rotation on its axis
b) Earth’s revolution around the sun in an elliptical manner
c) Both (a) and (b)
d) Revolution of earth on a tilted axis

Explanations

The earth’s revolution in the inclined position in the elliptical orbit leads to variation in the length of day and nights all over the globe.
As the earth axis makes an angle of 66 1/2 degrees with the plane of elliptic, during the month of June when it is summer over the northern hemisphere, the sun rays directly fall on the tropic of cancer. So this leads to longer days and shorter nights in the northern hemisphere area leading to increase in the day light as well. Length of day and night does vary according to the season and latitudinal position. At the equator the day and night are mostly of same lengths all round the year.

Q6. Every country calculates its Standard meridian as the angular distance from the Greenwich meridian.If it is12 noon at GMT what is the time on Indian Standard Time?

a) 5:30 P.M
b) 5:00 P.M
c) 5:20 P.M
d  5:30 A.M

Explanation:

As we know Earth rotates 360 ° in 24 hours,
Per hour earth will cover (360/24 ) 15°degrees.
Therefore,
15 degree= 1 hour and
1 degree = 4 minutes

Now according to the given problem , we know while moving east from Greenwich the time increases .
So difference between GMT and IST(82.5 degree)= 82.5-0 is 82.5 degrees
And 1 degree =1/15 hours
So 82.5 degree= 1/15 X 82.5=5.5
That is 5 and a half hour ahead
So, 5:30 P.M

Q7.Consider the statements regarding equator of the Earth:

1. Equator is the largest latitude of earth dividing the earth in two equal halves.
2. The equator is the only line of latitude which is also a great circle.
3. Sites near the Equator are good locations for spaceports as they have a faster revolution speed than other latitudes.

Choose the correct statements?

a) Only 1
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 2
d) None of the above

Explanation:

Latitude of a place is measured as the angular distance of the place from the equator. All latitudes also called as parallels are concentric circles. So,
Equator is the largest latitude of earth. The equator is the only line of latitude which is also a great circle — that is, one whose plane passes through the center of the globe. The plane of Earth's equator when projected outwards to the celestial sphere defines the celestial equator.
Sites near the Equator, such as the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana, are good locations for spaceports as they have a faster rotational speed than other latitudes; the added velocity reduces the fuel needed to launch spacecraft. Because the Earth spins to the east, spacecraft must also launch to the east (or to the southeast or northeast) to take advantage of this Earth-boost of speed.

Q8. Through which one of the following groups of Asian countries does Tropic of cancer pass?

a) India, Saudi Arabia and Sri Lanka
c) Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Oman
d) Venezuela, Ethiopia and Indonesia

Explanation:

The Tropic of Cancer position is not fixed, but varies in a complicated manner over time. It drifts south almost half an arc second of latitude per year .North of the tropic are the subtropics and the North Temperate Zone. The equivalent line of latitude south of the Equator is called the Tropic of Capricorn, and the region between the two, centered on the Equator, is the tropics.
Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastward, the Tropic of Cancer passes through 16 countries:

Q9.Consider the following statements regarding the Chaibagaan Time:

1. Chaibagaan time is 1 hour ahead of Indian standard time.
2. Administration of the Indian state of West Bengal now wants to change it’s time zone back to Chaibagaan time to conserve energy and improve productivity by optimizing the usage of daytime.

Choose the incorrect statement(s)?

a) Only 1
b) Only 2
c)  Both 1 and 2
d) None of the above

Explanation:

Chaibagaan Time was a daylight schedule introduced by the British tea planters more than 150 years ago which was one hour ahead of IST.
This was done to improve productivity by optimizing the usage of daytime. Since Independence, Assam has been following IST for the past 66 years.
Recently, the administration of the Indian state of Assam now wants to change it’s time zone back to Chaibagaan time to conserve energy and improve productivity. Indian government didn’t accept to such a proposal.

Q10. Consider the following statements?

1. A person travelling from India to USA across International Date Line will gain a day.
2. A person travelling from Mexico to New Zealand will lose a day.
3. On a 12 hour clock, the time is 05:30 in Delhi. Then the time in London on a 24 hour clock will be 00:00.

Which of the above statements are incorrect?

a) All the statements are correct
b) Only 2
c) 1 and 2
d) 2 and 3

Explanation:

The International Date Line is an imaginary line of longitude on the Earth’s surface which marks the divide where the date changes by one day. It makes some deviations from the 180-degree meridian to avoid dividing countries in two zones. If you cross the date line moving east, you subtract a day, whereas if you are moving west you add a day.
So, statement 1 and 2 are correct.
As we know Earth rotates 360 ° in 24 hours,
Per hour earth will cover (360/24) 15°degrees.
Therefore,
15 degree= 1 hour and
1 degree = 4 minutes

Now according to the given problem, we know while moving east from Greenwich the time increases.
So difference between GMT and IST (82.5 degree)= 82.5-0 is 82.5 degrees
And 1 degree =1/15 hours
So 82.5 degree= 1/15 X 82.5=5.5
That is 5 and a half hour ahead
So, 5:30 P.M

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