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IAS Prelims Exam: Environment and Ecology NIOS Questions: Conservation of other Natural resources

Environment and Ecology section of IAS Syllabus is very important for the IAS Prelims Exam. The IAS aspirants should understand the basic of the environmental science and then only should go for the bigger picture. In the last few years, the importance of the subject Environment and Ecology in UPSC IAS Exam has increased due to its growing concern at the global level So practice is must for these questions for the IAS Prelims Exam.

Jun 25, 2016 12:05 IST
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In UPSC IAS Prelims Exam, the subject Environment and Ecology considered as the one of the most important sections among all the subjects of UPSC IAS Exam syllabus. The UPSC IAS aspirants required to prepare this subject very well because of growing importance of this subject at global level. So, here we have created Multiple Choice Questions of Environment and Ecology based on the NIOS Study Material for UPSC IAS Prelims Exam Preparation.

1.    Consider the following statements regarding the natural resources:
I.    The resource that is directly available for use from nature is called natural resource, which includes air, water from rainfall in lakes, rivers and wells, soil, land, forest, biodiversity, minerals, fossil fuels etc.
II.    When human population was small and they lived a controlled and moderate life, the resource use was limited.
III.    The increasing population and economic activity resulted in excessive material consumption is putting heavy burden on natural resource base and that is causing severe damage to the environment.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
a.    Only I
b.    I and II
c.    II and III
d.    All of the above

Answer: d

Explanation:


Resource is anything useful or can be made useful to humans to meet their needs. The resource that is directly available for use from nature is called natural resource, which includes air, water from rainfall in lakes, rivers and wells, soil, land, forest, biodiversity, minerals, fossil fuels etc.

Thus natural resources are supplied by our environment. When human population was small and they lived a controlled and moderate life, the resource use was limited. But increasing population and economic activity resulted in excessive material consumption is putting heavy burden on natural resource base and that is causing severe damage to the environment.

2.    Consider the following statements regarding the  primary source of energy:
I.    Fossil fuel includes all forms of stored solar energy including coal, lignite, peat, crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas are considered primary sources of energy.
II.    The primary energy resources are non-renewable and exhaustible because they are found in finite quantities cannot be renewed if exhausted during one’s lifetime.
III.    Their renewal or formation may require millions of years, not within the human life scale, i.e., they are replaced slowly than they are used.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
a.    Only I
b.    I and II
c.    II and III
d.    All of the above

 

Answer: d

Explanation:

Fossil fuel includes all forms of stored solar energy including coal, lignite, peat, crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas. These are considered primary sources of energy. These energy resources are non-renewable and exhaustible because they are found in finite quantities cannot be renewed if exhausted during one’s lifetime. Their renewal or formation may require millions of years, not within the human life scale, i.e., they are replaced slowly than they are used.

Though coal, oil and natural gas are biotic in origin as they were produced rom plants and plankton that lived millions of years ago, they cannot be renewed in practical terms; at least it cannot be reproduced in our times. Once these resources are consumed, they are practically gone forever.

3.    Consider the following statements regarding the conventional source of energy:
I.    Coal, oil and natural gas are three major fossil fuels that are conventional sources of energy.
II.    Coal is the world’s most abundant energy resource (fossil fuel) that is burned most to produce electricity and steel.
III.    Coal is a solid fossil fuel that was formed in several stages as the buried remains of land plants, that lived 300-400 million years ago, were processed by geological forces.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
a.    Only I
b.    I and II
c.    II and III
d.    All of the above

Answer: d

Explanation:


Coal, oil and natural gas are three major fossil fuels that are conventional sources of energy. Coal is the world’s most abundant energy resource (fossil fuel) that is burned most to produce electricity and steel. Coal is a solid fossil fuel that was formed in several stages as the buried remains of land plants, that lived 300-400 million years ago, were processed by geological forces.

4.    Which of the following country has the highest number of coal reserves in the world?
I.    India
II.    USA
III.    China
IV.    Russia

Answer: b

Explanation
:

USA has one fourth of world’s coal reserves, Russia has 16% and China 12%. China has enough coal reserves to last 300 years at its current rate of consumption. In India about one third of the country’s coal reserves are distributed in Jharkhand coal fields like Jharia, Bokoro, Giridih, Daltonganj, Ramgarh etc.

Mining and burning of coal has severe environmental impact on air, water and land and accounts for more than one third of the world’s annual CO2 emissions.

5.    Consider the following statements regarding the Petroleum or crude oil:
I.    Petroleum or crude oil is a thick liquid containing a complex mixture of hydrocarbons with sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen.
II.    Deposits of crude oil and natural gas are tapped together within the earth crust or under the seafloor.
III.    The crude oil is dispersed in pores and cracks in underground rock-formations like water saturating a sponge.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
a.    Only I
b.    I and II
c.    II and III
d.    All of the above

Answer: d

Explanation:

Petroleum or crude oil (oil as it comes out of the ground) is a thick liquid containing a complex mixture of hydrocarbons with sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen.

Deposits of crude oil and natural gas are tapped together within the earth crust or under the seafloor. The crude oil is dispersed in pores and cracks in underground rock-formations like water saturating a sponge. The oil has drawn out of the rock pores and into the bottom of the well and from where it is pumped to the surface.

6.    In which of the following regions of India, the commercial oil production (extraction) is being carried out?
a.    Assam Valley
b.    Gujarat region
c.    Mumbai High off shore
d.    All of the above

Answer: d

Explanation:

In India commercial oil production (extraction) is being carried out in four regions – (1) Assam Valley; (2) Gujarat region; (3) Mumbai High off shore region; (4) East coast in Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basins. Mumbai high is the top petroleum producing region of India.

7.    The only states where the production of oil was carried out until 1959 in the country?
a.    Assam
b.    Maharashtra
c.    Gujarat
d.    Bihar

Answer: a

Explanation:


For exploration of petroleum, wells were drilled in Assam valley in 1866, just seven years after the discovery of petroleum in Pennsylvania in USA. Oil was discovered in 1890 in Digboi oil field in Assam. Only Assam produced petroleum in the country until 1959.

8.    Consider the following statements regarding the Natural Gases:
I.    Natural gas is emerging as an important source of commercial energy which is found in association of petroleum.
II.    India has a huge recoverable, reserve of natural gas which contains methane and smaller amounts of propane and butane.
III.    When a natural gas field is tapped, propane and butane gases are liquefied and removed as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
a.    Only I
b.    I and II
c.    II and III
d.    All of the above

Answer: d

Explanation:

Natural gas like coal, oil, was formed from fossil remains. The conditions needed for oil formation are same as those for natural gas. Natural gas is emerging as an important source of commercial energy. It is found in association of petroleum. India has a huge recoverable, reserve of natural gas.

Natural gas contains methane and smaller amounts of propane and butane. When a natural gas field is tapped, propane and butane gases are liquefied and removed as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The rest of the gas (mostly methane) is dried to remove water vapour, cleansed of poisonous hydrogen sulphide and pumped into pressurized pipelines for distribution. At a very low temperature, natural gas can be converted into liquefied natural gas (LNG).

9.    Consider the following statements regarding the Mineral resources:
I.    India has extensive and rich deposits of industrially important minerals like water and land as an invaluable treasure of the earth.
II.    Minerals play a significant role in industrialization and economic development of a country.
III.    Like oil and petroleum, minerals are non-renewable resources.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
a.    Only I
b.    I and II
c.    II and III
d.    All of the above

Answer: d

Explanation:

India has extensive and rich deposits of industrially important minerals. Minerals like water and land are invaluable treasure of the earth. Minerals play a significant role in industrialization and economic development of a country.

Like oil and petroleum, minerals are non-renewable resources; hence they must be used carefully and judiciously so that they are conserved for future.

10.    Consider the following statements regarding the availability of ferrous metallic minerals in India:
I.    Iron-ore as a ferrous metallic mineral include iron, manganese, chromite, pyrite which contain iron in substantial quantity.
II.    India has large reserve of haematite and magnetite ores, inferior quality limonite is rarely used.
III.    India has 20 % of world’s total reserves of iron ore.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
a.    Only I
b.    I and II
c.    II and III
d.    All of the above

Answer: d

Explanation:

They constitute most important mineral group after fuel minerals (oil and gas). They include iron, manganese, chromite, pyrite etc. These minerals contain iron in substantial quantity. These minerals provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries, particularly iron, steel and alloys.

Most iron ores found in the country are of three types – Haematite, magnetite and limonite. Haematite is red in colour, called ‘red ore’ and has 68% iron. Magnetite is dark brown in colour called ‘black ore’ and has 60% iron. Limonite is yellow in colour and has 35% iron.

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