Jagran Josh Logo
  1. Home
  2. |  
  3. Civil Services|  

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam: Physical Geography NCERT Questions: Biomes

Jun 15, 2016 17:24 IST

    UPSC Civil Services (IAS) Exam 2016 Notification is just released by Union Public Service Commission and the candidates are required to understand the requirement of Civil Services Prelims Examination on order to qualify the IAS Prelim Exam. It requires a special focus on the IAS Exam Preparation and endless practice of the Subject Questions and Model Test Papers.


    Geography is one of the important components of the IAS Syllabus which covers the major share of the IAS Prelims Questions. The General Studies Paper I of Civil Services IAS Prelims Exam consist of Geography Questions ranges from 15 to 25 every year. So, the Civil Services aspirants have to do Preparation of GS Geography in a manner so, that they can score better in IAS Prelims Exam.
    Here, we have provided such practice questions of Physical Geography which will help aspirants to check their level of Preparation of IAS Prelims Exam 2016.

    1.    Consider the following statements regarding biomes:
    I.    The word biome is a short form of biological home.
    II.    Biome may be defined as a large natural ecosystem wherein we study the total assemblage of plant and animal communities.
    III.    A biome includes both plant and animal communities but a biome is usually identified and named on the basis of its dominant vegetation, which normally constitutes the bulk of the biomass.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    II and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    The word biome is a short form of biological home. There is no unanimity among the scientists as for as the definition as well as classification of biome is concerned. Biome may be defined as a large natural eco-system wherein we study the total assemblage of plant and animal communities. Here, all the biota has the minimum common characteristics and all the areas of biomes are characterized by more or less uniform environmental conditions.

    Though a biome includes both plant and animal communities but a biome is usually identified and named on the basis of its dominant vegetation, which normally constitutes the bulk of the biomass.

    2.    Which of the following factors does not affects the Biomes?
    a.    Length of a geographical area
    b.    Length of day light and darkness.
    c.    Mean temperature as well as difference in temperature.
    d.    Length of growing season.

    Answer: a

    Explanation:

    Factors affecting Biomes: There are various factors which affects the size, location, and character of a biome. Important factors are as follow:

    • Length of day light and darkness. This is mainly responsible for duration of  photosynthesis.
    • Mean  temperature  as  well  as  difference  in  temperature.  Differences (both diurnal and annual) to find out extreme conditions.
    • Length of growing season.
    • Precipitation  which  includes  total  amount,  variations  over  time  and intensity.
    • Wind flow that include speed, direction, duration and frequency.
    • Soil types
    • Slopes
    • Drainage
    • Other Plants and animal species


    3.    On the basis of climate with special emphasis on availability of moisture which among the following is not a type of Biomes?
    a.    Forest biome
    b.    Savanna biome
    c.    River Biome
    d.    Grassland biome

    Answer: c

    Explanation:


    According to this basis biomes are determined by the degree to which moisture is  available  to  plants  in  a  scale  hanging  from  abundant  (forest  biome)  to almost  scarce  (desert  biome).  But within each biome, conditions of temperature are vastly different from low to high altitudes and low to high latitudes. Consequently there is a need to sub-divide each biome in to further sub-types.  However, according to this classification, there are four major types of biomes:

    • Forest Biome
    • Savanna Biome
    • Grassland Biome
    • Desert Biome


    4.    Consider the following statements regarding geographical background of the ‘evergreen rainforest biome’:
    I.    This biome extends upto 100 latitude on both sides of the equator.
    II.    It covers the area of  Amazon low land of south America, Congo basin of equatorial  Africa  and  South  Eastern  Asian  Islands  extending  from Sumatra to New Guinea.
    III.    This area experiences high temperature throughout the year with range as little as 20C.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    II and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    This biome extends upto 100 latitude on both sides of the equator. It covers the area of  Amazon low land of south America, Congo basin of equatorial  Africa  and  South  Eastern  Asian  Islands  extending  from Sumatra to New Guinea.

    This area experiences high temperature throughout the year with range as little as 20C. However, the daily range of temperature is much higher than the annual range of temperature. This area gets heavy rainfall ranging between 150cm-250cm. It is distributed throughout the year.

    Rainfall occurs in the afternoon almost on daily basis. This also happens because  of  huge  amount  of  water  vapour  reaching  in  the  atmosphere due to high temperature. Hence, this area is considered to be an equable climate as both temperature and rainfall are high for whole of the year.

    5.    Consider the following statements regarding Natural Vegetation and Animal Life of the ‘evergreen rainforest biome’:
    I.    The combination of heat and moisture make this biome as worst and dangerous environment for variety of plants and animal species.
    II.    Most of the trees have buttressed trunks, shallow roots and large dark evergreen leaves.
    III.    The variety of plant species can be understood from the fact that one square kilometre may contain as many as about thousand of different types of plant species.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    II and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: c

    Explanation:

    The combination of heat and moisture make this biome as perfect environment for a great variety of plants and animal species. The variety of plant species can be understood from the fact that one square kilometre may contain as many as about thousand of different types of plant species. Most of the trees have buttressed trunks, shallow roots and large dark evergreen leaves. The evergreen rainforest arranged in three levels:

    • The  canopy  or  upper  level  where  trees  lies  between about 20 metres to 50 metres. Most of them are hard wood trees like ebony, Mahogany, rose wood, sandalwood, cinchona, etc.
    • The second level of intermediary level where trees lies between about 10 meters to 20 meters. The most important plant of this group is palm trees. Apart from  palm  trees,  epiphytic  and  parasitic  plants  are  also  found  in  this layer
    • The  third  or  lower  level  lies  from  surface  level  to  about  10 meters of heights. Under this category variety of plants are found namely orchids, ferns, mosses, herbs, bananas, pineapples etc.


    6.    Which of the following Human activities damage the Biomes?
    a.    Construction of large dams and reservoirs
    b.    Construction of roads and high ways
    c.    Extraction of timber clearance for pasture or crops
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:


    Human being has also started to damage this biologically rich eco system through various developmental activities. These activities are construction of large dams and reservoirs, roads and high ways, extraction of timber clearance for pasture or crops, encroachment and clearance by landless peasants etc.

    Ecologists argue that if clearance continues at recent rates, all of the world’s undisturbed rainforest is likely to have disappeared or to be damaged by 2020. This would lead to an irreparable loss of biological assets. Rainforests contain about 40% of all known species of plants and animals. Clearance of rain forest causes the loss of valuable natural resources including hard wood trees and tree products such as quinine rubber vegetable gums etc.

    7.    Consider the following statements regarding the geographical background of Temperate Grassland Biome:
    I.    Temperate grasslands are located in two typical locations i.e. interior of the continent in the northern hemisphere and margin of the continents in the southern hemisphere.
    II.    The temperate grasslands of the southern hemisphere have moderate climate than their counterparts of the northern hemisphere because of more marine influences as they are closer to the coast.
    III.    The temperate grasslands of the northern hemisphere are characterized by continental climate wherein extremes of summer and winter temperatures are well marked.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    II and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: d

    Explanation:

    Temperate grasslands are located in two typical locations i.e. interior of the continent in the northern hemisphere and margin of the continents in the southern hemisphere. Therefore, the temperate grasslands of the southern hemisphere have moderate climate than their counterparts of the northern hemisphere because of more marine influences as they are closer to the coast.

    The temperate grasslands of the northern hemisphere are characterized by continental climate wherein extremes of summer and winter temperatures are well marked.  Though grasslands in the southern hemisphere are located along the coast, these are located in the rain shadow areas of the high coastal mountains. These locations account for scanty rainfall in all these regions.

    8.    Consider the following statements regarding Natural Vegetation and Animal Life of Temperate Grassland Biome:
    I.    The natural vegetation of these regions comprises treeless grasslands and the trees appear only on slopes of mountains where precipitation is more.
    II.    The height of grass varies from place to place according to the amount of precipitation and fertility of the soil.
    III.    Prairies in particular are known for short and nutritious grass and the appearance of these grasses on these lands varies with the seasons.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    II and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    As the precipitation is too low for the growth of trees but is sufficient for the growth of grass. The natural vegetation of these regions comprises treeless grasslands. Trees appear only on slopes of mountains where precipitation is more. The height of grass varies from place to place according to the amount of precipitation and fertility of the soil.

    Steppes in particular are known for short and nutritious grass. The appearance of these grasses on these lands varies with the seasons. In springs, the grass beings to appear green, fresh and blooming with small and colour full flowers.

    In summers, due to the scorching heat and evaporation, the green grass turns yellow and then brown. Towards autumn, the grass withers and dies, but, the roots remain alive and lie dormant throughout the cold winter season. When spring comes, the whole cycle is repeated.

    9.    Consider the following statements regarding geographical background of the Arctic Tundra Biome:
    I.    This is essentially a cold desert in which atmospheric moisture is scarce and summers are so short and cool that trees are unable to survive.
    II.    This biome is distributed along the northern edge of the Northern Hemisphere.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    Only II
    c.    Both I and II
    d.    Neither I nor II

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    This is essentially a cold desert in which atmospheric moisture is scarce and summers are so short and cool that trees are unable to survive. This biome is distributed along the northern edge of the Northern Hemisphere. It covers parts of Alaska, northern parts of Canada, the coastal areas of Greenland and the Arctic Coastal regions of Russia and Northern Siberia.

    10.    Consider the following statements regarding Natural Vegetation and Animal Life of the Arctic Tundra Biome:
    I.    The plant cover consists of a considerable mixture of species and many of these species are dwarf form such as grasses, mosses, lichens, flowering herbs, and a scattering of low shrubs.
    II.    The plants complete their annual cycle hastily during the brief summers, when the ground is often moist and waterlogged because of inadequate surface drainage.
    III.    In this Biome the migratory animals, in contrast, begin migrating  to  the  warmer  places  in  the  very  beginning  of  winter.

    Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    a.    Only I
    b.    I and II
    c.    II and III
    d.    All of the above

    Answer: b

    Explanation:

    The plant cover consists of a considerable mixture of species. Many of these species are dwarf form such as grasses, mosses, lichens, flowering herbs, and a scattering of low shrubs. These plants often occur in dense, ground hugging arrangements. The plants complete their annual cycle hastily during the brief summers, when the ground is often moist and waterlogged because of inadequate surface drainage.

    The  animal  of  this  biome  may  be  categorized  as (i)  resident  and  (ii) migrant. Resident animals like ptarmigan can adjust themselves to the changing climatic conditions. The migratory animals, in contrast, begin migrating  to  the  warmer  places  in  the  very  beginning  of  winter. Examples are birds such as water fowl, ducks, swans, and geese etc. which leave their places of origin in the first half of autumn and return in the following spring or early summer.

    Mosquitoes, flies and other insects proliferate astoundingly during the short warm season, laying eggs that can survive the bitter winter. Other forms of animal life are scarce – a few species of mammals and freshwater fishes but almost no reptiles or amphibians.  Besides, the rein deer, wolves, foxes, musk-ox, arctic hare, seal and lemmings also live in this region. Productivity in tundra biome is exceedingly low.

    Click here for the Geography Study Material

    Click here for any query and further discussion

    Latest Videos

    Register to get FREE updates

      All Fields Mandatory
    • (Ex:9123456789)
    • Please Select Your Interest
    • Please specify

    • By clicking on Submit button, you agree to our terms of use
      ajax-loader
    • A verifcation code has been sent to
      your mobile number

      Please enter the verification code below

    Newsletter Signup
    Follow us on
    X

    Register to view Complete PDF