Fertility rate of India drops below replacement level, sex ratio improves; Check key findings of NFHS-5 survey

India's Fertility Rate: The National Family Health Welfare Survey (NFHS-5) has found that the overall Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has increased substantially from 54% to 67% at an All-India level. Check the other key findings of the NFHS-5 survey below. 

Created On: Nov 25, 2021 11:00 IST
Drop in India's fertility level
Drop in India's fertility level

Fertility Rate of India 2021: India’s Total Fertility Rate (TFR) has further declined from 2.2 to 2 at the national level. The Total Fertility Rate is the average number of children per woman. As per a survey by the Health Ministry, the total fertility rate in India has ranged from 1.4 in Chandigarh to 2.4 in Uttar Pradesh.

The factsheets of key indicators on nutrition, population, family welfare, reproductive and child health, and others for India and 14 states and UTs were clubbed under Phase 2 of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) (2019-21). They were released by the NITI Aayog’s Member, Health, Dr Vinod Kumar Paul and Family Welfare Secretary Rajesh Bhushan.

The Health Ministry survey has shown that all the states covered under Phase-2 have been able to achieve the replacement level of fertility (2.1) except Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.

Drop in India’s fertility rate

The National Family Health Welfare Survey (NFHS-5) has found that the overall Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has increased substantially from 54% to 67% at an All-India level.

The use of contraceptives of modern methods has seen an increase in almost all the Indian States and UTs. The increase can be seen in almost all Phase-2 states/UTs with an exception of Punjab.

The key indicator of the Health Ministry has also revealed that the unmet needs of family planning have seen a significant decline from 13% to 9% at an All-India level and in most of the Phase-2 states and UTs.

Phase-2 of NFHS-5: Key findings

1. Immunisation drive among Children

As per the survey, the full immunization drive among children aged between 12-23 months has recorded a substantial improvement from 62% to 76% at an All-India level.

On comparing the previous data of NFHS-4 and NFHS-5, the increase in full immunization coverage has been observed to be rapid in various states and Union Territories.  The highest is in Odisha at 90%.

2. Improved Sex Ratio

As per the NFHS-3 conducted in 2005-2006, the ratio was equal to 1000:1000 for women and men. Later, it went further down to 991:1000 in 2015-2016 in NFHS-4. However, for the first time, NFHS-5 data has shown that there were 1,020 women for 1,000 men in India in 2019-21.

3. Anaemia among children and women continues to be a cause

As per phase-2 of NFHS-5, anaemia among children and women has continued to be a concern, with more than half of women and children being anaemic in 14 Indian States and UTs and at an all-India level.

4. Child nutrition indicators shows improvement

As per the findings of NFHS-5 survey, child nutrition has shown a slight improvement at an all-India level as the stunting declined from 38% to 26%, wasting from 21% to 19% and underweight from 36% to 32%.

5. Breastfeeding to children under six months of age shows improvement

Exclusive breastfeeding to the children under 6 months of age has shown improvement in an All-India level from 55% in 2015-16 to 64% in 2019-21.

6. Increase in institutional births

There has been an increase in institutional births. They have increased significantly from 79% to 89% at the country level. In Puducherry and Tamil Nadu, institutional delivery is 100% and more than 90% in seven states and UTs. C-section deliveries have also seen an increase.

7. Need for spacing comes down

The unmet need for spacing has come down to less than 10% in all states in India, except Jharkhand at 12%, and UP and Arunachal Pradesh- both at 13%.

States and UTs covered under NFHS-5 Phase 2

The States and UTs that were surveyed in phase-2 were Chhattisgarh, Arunachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Jharkhand, Haryana, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Puducherry, Odisha, Rajasthan, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand.

NFHS-5: Objective

The main objective of the successive rounds of the National Family Health Welfare Survey (NFHS) is to provide reliable and comparable data that is related to health and family welfare as well as other emerging issues in the country.

NFHS-5 Survey Work

The survey work of NFHS-5 has been conducted in around 6.1 lakh sample households from 707 districts of India.

The NFHS-5 survey by the Health Ministry covered 7,24,115 women and 1,01,839 men. It provided dis-aggregated estimates up to the district level. The results of NFHS-5 are also available for the public on the Ministry of Health website.

Background

Earlier in December 2020, the findings of NFHS-5 for 22 states and UTs that were covered under Phase-1 were released.

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