A brief account on the Cottage Industries in India
The Cottage Industry is a form of unorganised industry in which people are engaged in craftsmanship works such as handicraft, pottery, knitting, handloom, etc. They are generally set up at the individual’s home or a nearby place and the workers use traditional equipment. This type of industry is associated with Community Development Programmes, Poverty Alleviation Programmes and Integrated Rural Development.
Milk-based industry, handloom and power loom industry, oilseed industry and food processing in Gujarat; Stone-cutting carpet-making and handicraft industry in Rajasthan; Handloom and power loom, milk-products (mainly Tarai region) in Uttar Pradesh; Food-processing, handloom and power loom, milk products etc. in outskirts region of metropolitans.
Famous centres of the Cottage Industries in India
(1) Malnmal: Meerut, Mathura, Madurai, Varanasi, Ambala
(2) Chhint: Machhilipattanam
(3) Durri: Agra, Jhansi, Aligarh, Ambala
(4) Khadi: Amroha, Calicut, Pune
2. Silk Textiles
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Jammu and Kashmir are the silk producing states in India.
(1) Chanderi Silk Saree: It is manufactured from chanderi cotton and silk cotton. It is situated in Chanderi, Ashoknagar district of Madhya Pradesh. The lightweight and shimmered look Chanderi Silk Sarees are listed under Geographical Indications in India.
(2) Banarasi Saree is finest sarees in India known for gold and silver zari and made of finely woven silk. There are four different types of Banarasi saree known as Tanchoi, Organza and Katan.
(3) Assam silk are produced in Assam and known as Muga silk, known for its extreme durability. Muga silk of Assam are used in products like traditional Assamese dress Mekhela chador and Assam silk sarees.
(4) Sambalpuri Silk Saree are manufactured in Sambalpur, Bargarh, Sonepur and Berhampur and listed under the Government of India’s Geographical Indications.
(5) Kancheepuram Silk Saree is listed under Geographical indication by the Government of India, made in the Kanchipuram region in Tamil Nadu.
(6) Baluchari Sari originated in Bengal made of tassar silk. The Baluchuri saree are producer from Malda district of West Bengal.
(7) Konrad Silk Saree is also known as Temple Saree, mostly woven for temple deities. Konrad, Mysore, Kanjeevaram Silk, Chettinad, Gadwal and Pochampally Sarees are best traditional beauties of South Indian silk sarees.
(8) Paithani Silk Sarees are made from very fine silk in Paithan town of Aurangabad. It is considered as one of the finest and richest saris in India.
(9) Patola Saree made in Patan, usually made from silk and very popular among the high class women. These double ikat Sarees are very expensive and printed with designs of elephants, flowers and parrots.
(10) Silk Silk Saree: It is produced by mulberry silk and processed into silk fabric in the Mysore district of Karnataka.
(11) Bomkai Silk Sari also known as Sonepuri Sari is produced in Subarnapur district. Most popular items are Sonepuri paatas, Sonepur handloom saree and Sonepu silk sarees.
(12) Bhagalpuri Silk Sarees are made from Tussar silk that is produced from silk worms. Raigarh Kosa Silk Saree and Jharkhand Tussar Silk Sarees are also produced from Tussar silk which is known as Kosa silk, species of moth.
3. Woollen Textiles: Amritsar, Dhariwal, Ludhiana, Machhilipattanam, Sri Nagar, Warrangal
4. Leather: Kanpur
5. Gur & Khandsari: Meerut
Important Facts about Indian Cottage Industries
1. Central Silk Industry Research Institute has been established at Behrampur (Kolkata) for the purpose of silk related research.
2. There are four types of Silk produced in India i.e. Mulberry, Tassar, Munga and Eri.
3. More than 50% of the Gur & Khandsari of the country produced by the Uttar Pradesh.
4. Cottage Industry Board was established in 1948.
5. Central Silk Board was established in 1949.
6. All India Handloom Board was established in 1950.
7. All India Handicrafts Board was established in 1953.
8. All India Khadi & Gramodyog Board was established in 1954.
9. Small Industry Board was established in 1954.
10. Central Sales Organisation was established in 1958.
It is noteworthy that the large-scale industries those have created a wide gap between capitals and labour, whereas Cottage Industry increases the attachment labour for their family which develops better sentiments. Hence, we can say that development of Cottage Industry is parallel important as the development of small, medium and large industries because it gives more rural employment.