Agriculture: Land Reforms
As per 1949 Indian constitution, Indian states were approved the powers to implement and enact land reforms. This guarantees that there has been noteworthy deviation across Indian states & time in terms of type and number of land reforms that have been ratified.
We categorize land reform acts in 4 major categories as per their main purpose:
First category: This act is related to tenancy reform. These comprises of attempts to control tenancy contracts both by means of stipulation and registration of contractual terms, for instance shares in tenancy contracts, and attempts to eliminate tenancy furthermore relocate ownership to tenants.
Second category: This act relates to the attempts to eliminate intermediaries. These intermediaries who worked under Zamandari to amass rent for British were reputed to agree to a larger share of surplus from land to be hauled out from tenants.
Third category: This category concerned efforts to employ ceilings on land holdings, with a vision to reallocating surplus land to landless.
Fourth Category: This act attempts to permit consolidation of dissimilar land holdings. Although these reforms & especially the latter were justified partially in terms of achieving effective gains in agriculture it is apparent from the acts themselves & from the political manifestos sustaining the acts that the main thrust driving the 1st three reforms was poverty reduction.
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